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In this era of ever-increasing demand and continuous urge for developments, limitation of financial resources come as the biggest constraint in overall satisfaction of an individual or entity’s needs. Financial or funding options provided by various financial institutions such as banks and NBFCs come as a solution to such financial constraints. Loans from such financial institutions can be availed depending upon one’s immediate requirement and repayment capacity.
From the consumer’s perspective, funding is granted and resource constraint is sort out. However, there is always a fear of default in repayment of loans faced by the lenders. Thus, the position of the lender becomes ambiguous and unsafe in granting such loans. Here, comes the concept of secured financing. Secured financing is one in which the lender has security rights over certain collateral that the borrower makes available to support the loan. The borrower agrees that should he not repay the loan as agreed, the lender has a right to seize the collateral to satisfy the debt.
There are various instruments offered under secured financing depending upon the collateral the borrower is willing to provide. Some of the commonly used instruments have been discussed herein this article.
Loan Against Property (LAP)
A loan against property is a loan given or disbursed against the mortgage of a property. LAP belongs to the secured loan category where the credit evaluation of the borrower is done keeping his property as a security. The property can be commercial or residential.
Immovable property being one of the most non-volatile security is mortgaged with the financial institution for obtaining required funds. Borrowers willing to purchase a residential/commercial property can obtain loan by keeping such desired property as the underlying security. The underlying security can be the property for which loan is being taken and/or a separate property as well. The loan is given as a certain percentage of the property’s market value, usually around 40% to 60%.
Here the loan is granted based on the quality of the collateral and less importance is given to the credit quality of the borrowers. Also, usually, these loans do not come with any end use restriction, that is to say, the borrowers get a free hand with respect to utilization of funds.
Loan Against Securities (LAS)
A loan against securities (LAS) is a loan given against the collateral of shares or securities. LAS enables one to borrow funds against listed securities such as shares, mutual funds, insurance and bonds to meet current financial needs. Borrowers can opt for this loan when they need instant liquidity for their personal/business needs and are sure to pay it back in few months.
There are however, specific regulations issued by RBI with respect to loan against shares of listed entities,
As per the Master Directions applicable on NBFC-NSI-ND issued by RBI, NBFCs with asset size of Rs.100 crore and above who are lending against the collateral of listed shares shall, maintain a Loan to Value (LTV) ratio of 50% for loans granted against the collateral of shares. Additionally, for LAS in case where lending is being done for investment in capital markets, only Group 1 securities (specified in SMD/ Policy/ Cir – 9/ 2003 dated March 11, 2003 as amended from time to time, issued by SEBI) shall be accepted as collateral for loans of value more than Rs5 lakh, subject to review by the Bank. The lender shall also be required to report on-line to stock exchanges on a quarterly basis, information on the shares pledged in their favour, by borrowers for availing loans in the prescribed format.
Difference between LAP and LAS
The underlying security for LAP and Las is different which is prevalent from the respective names itself. Apart from this major difference there are other areas of difference between the two as well. The basic differences between the two are highlighted hereunder:
|Features||Loan against securities||Loan against property|
|Nature of facility||A loan against securities (LAS) is a loan given against the collateral of shares or securities.||A loan against property (LAP) is a loan given or disbursed against the mortgage of a property.|
|Exposure||In case of LAS the exposure is based on the value of securities||In case of LAP it is based on the value of property.|
|Volatility||The value of securities, in case it is listed shall fluctuate very frequently and hence the value of security is very volatile.||The value of property is less volatile as compared to LAS.|
|Type of security||The shares or securities can either be listed or unlisted.||The property can either be movable or immovable.|
|End use||Usually the end use of the facility extended is for investment in the securities.||There is no end use restriction in case of LAP.|
|Regulations from RBI||As per the Master Directions applicable on NBFC-NSI-ND issued by RBI, all Applicable NBFC with asset size of Rs.100 crore and above who are lending against the collateral of listed shares shall, maintain a Loan to Value (LTV) ratio of 50% for loans granted against the collateral of shares.||No specific regulatory guideline has been prescribed regarding LTV ratio for granting loan against property by an NBFC.
|LTV Ratio||Further, as per the statutory provision, if the value of listed securities falls down thereby increasing the LTV ratio, additional security must be provided to maintain such LTV ratio. The Applicable NBFC must ensure that any shortfall in the maintenance of 50% LTV occurring on account of movement in the share prices is to be made good within 7 working days.||In case of LAP, such reinstating is not statutory. However, the lender may revise the sanctioned limit in case the loan agreement provides for such discretionary right to the lender.
|Statutory Requirement||Additionally, for LAS in case where lending is being done for investment in capital markets, only Group 1 securities (specified in SMD/ Policy/ Cir – 9/ 2003 dated March 11, 2003 as amended from time to time, issued by SEBI) shall be accepted as collateral for loans of value more than Rs5 lakh, subject to review by the Bank. The lender shall also be required to report on-line to stock exchanges on a quarterly basis, information on the shares pledged in their favour, by borrowers for availing loans in the prescribed format.||No such regulatory requirement.
IPO or Initial Public Offer is a rewarding experience for individuals and companies as it offers substantial return to investors on the shares subscribed by them. However, it may so happen that an investor might not possess the requisite funds to subscribe to IPOs. In such a situation, inflow of funds from another source may become necessary. Here comes the concept of IPO funding which bridges the deficit between the resources at hand and the funds needed in aggregate. The lender creates a right of lien on the shares to be allotted to the investor/borrower in the IPO. This shall form the underlying security against the loan which can be liquidated in case of non-payment of principle and/or interest.
Similar to LAS, IPO Financing is loan against acquiring shares and making a short-term profit that is expected at the time of initial price discovery of the shares once the shares are listed. However, unlike LAS, it is specifically for funding subscriptions to IPOs. In case of an IPO Financing, the exposure is based on the borrower and the securities/ shares, if allotted, are taken as collateral for securing the obligations under the loan. The transaction forces the applicant to sell the shares once listed, hence, the idea cannot be to finance an investment in shares.
The financial institution demands for an upfront payment of the margin amount based on the assessment of subscription levels. For example, if an investor applies for 100 shares and gets allotted only 10 shares due to oversubscription, the refund on 90 shares is divided between the borrower and lender proportionately. The shares allotted are held as lien by the lender.
Recently, the RBI had released a Discussion Paper on the Revised Regulatory Framework for NBFCs on 22nd January, 2021, wherein it has been proposed to fix a ceiling of Rs. 1 crore per individual in case of IPO financing by any NBFC.
Equipment financing is yet another type of secured financing wherein loan is given for purchase of commercial or office equipment. The underlying asset is the equipment for which loan is advanced and/or any other equipment. The loan is secured by way of a hypothecation over the equipment financed. For efficient and smooth functioning of various units of a commercial enterprise, existence of upgraded machinery is of utmost importance. Such acquisitions may require additional funds from external sources. Hence, equipment finance helps in improving the overall production levels.
Secured Working Capital Finance
Fulfilment of working capital requirements is perhaps the most integral responsibility of a company. Adequate working capital is needed to meet the day-to-day activities of an enterprise and enable it to function smoothly. Financing options for meeting working capital limits is also available. Loan is given for maintaining such working capital by placing a floating charge on the assets of the company. No fixed asset is kept aside as the underlying security. In case of any default, an asset of sufficient value shall be a seized and liquidated to meet the default.
Here, it is important to understand the difference between LAS or LAP and a regular secured working capital loan. For instance, in case of LAS or LAP the exposure is based on the value of securities or the property, as the case may be, and not on the borrower. Whereas, in case of a secured loan the exposure is based on the borrower and the securities or property are taken as collateral for securing the obligations under the loan. Such a secured loan shall not be classified as LAS or LAP and hence maintaining the prescribed regulatory LTV ratio will also not be applicable in this case.
At a Glance
|LAP||LAS||IPO Funding||Equipment Financing||Working Capital Financing|
|Nature of facility||Loan disbursed against the collateral of property||Loan disbursed against the collateral of shares||Loan extended for investing in IPO||Loan advanced for purchase of equipment against the collateral of the same and/or any other equipment||Loan advanced for meeting working capital requirements and accordingly a floating charge is created|
|Nature of security||Property||Shares||Shares subscribed in IPO||Equipment||Floating charge on the assets.|
|Volatility||Very less||Volatile||Volatile||Less volatile||Less volatile|
|Regulatory Framework||No specifications but additions can be made in the loan agreement as per discretion||As per the Master Directions applicable on NBFC-NSI-ND issued by RBI, all Applicable NBFC with asset size of Rs.100 crore and above who are lending against the collateral of listed shares shall, maintain a Loan to Value (LTV) ratio of 50% for loans granted against the collateral of shares.||No specifications but additions can be made in the loan agreement as per discretion||No specifications but additions can be made in the loan agreement as per discretion||No specifications but additions can be made in the loan agreement as per discretion|
Secured financing comes as a relief to both borrowers and lenders. The borrower avails the required funds for meeting its financial or domestic purpose and the lender ensures security against the loan advanced by creating a mortgage or lien on the borrower’s property/shares.
Read our other relevant articles and books on the subject matter:
1. Securitisation, Asset Reconstruction & Enforcement of Security Interest-
2. Fragmented framework for perfection of security interest-
3. Vehicle financing: Multiple Security Interest Registrations & its Impact by Vinod Kothari
 The discussion on the regulatory aspects have been restricted to the regulations applicable to NBFCs only.
 Read our article titled- Sitting comfy in the lap of LAP: NBFCs push loans against properties- http://vinodkothari.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/sitting_comfy_in_the_lap_of_LAP.pdf