Whether expense towards Corporate Environment Responsibility (CER) be eligible as CSR spending?

Nitu Poddar, Senior Associate (


Since the amendment in the CSR provisions on 22.01.2021, even the existing eight year old provision has gained substantial attention and deliberation by the stakeholders. This article is to discuss yet another topic on CSR which is “whether amount spend towards Corporate Environment Responsibility (CER[1]) stipulated as specific condition under Environment Clearance by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) can be included as a CSR project?” In other words, whether CER obligations can be merged with CSR obligations or are these two mutually exclusive.

What is CER?

Industrial sectors (specified in the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification 2006 dated September 14, 2006[2]) which have direct environmental footprint are required to take prior Environment Clearance (EC) from the MoEFCC before setting up any new project / expansion / modernisation of an existing project / change in the product-mix.  While granting such EC, the Ministry puts certain conditions (requirements) on the applicant (referred as Project Proponent (PP) in two categories – specific conditions and general conditions – implementation of which, if unsatisfactory, the EC may be revoked. One of such specific condition imposed by the MoEFCC while granting EC is that the applicant should undertake CER / ESC which is to be based on the local needs and should be restricted to the affected areas around the proposed project.

As per Office Memorandum[3] (OM) No. F. No. 22-65 / 2017-IA.III of MoEFFC dated May 01, 2018,

Some of the activities which can be carried out in CER, are infrastructure creation for drinking water supply, sanitisation, health, education, skill development, roads, cross drains, electrification including solar power, solid waste management facilities, scientific support and awareness to local farmers to increase yield of crop and fodder, rain water harvesting, soil moisture conservation works, avenue plantation, plantation in community areas, etc.

Unlike CSR, CER is based on project cost and not profits made by the proposed project.  The obligation of CER is within the range of 2.5% – 5% of the project cost.

Why CER?

The MoEFCC, in its Office Memorandum (OM) No.J-11013/25/2014-IA.I dated August 11, 2014, discussed that since the CSR obligation is based on profits, there might be cases where the proposed project is yet to make profit. In such case, since the project will have already created impact on the society and environment, it is required to commit towards the same, irrespective of profits, through CER commitment. Further, as per the 2018 OM, all the activities proposed under CER is also required to be monitored and reported bi-annually and also posted on the website of the company.

Anomaly created by different OMs and correspondences of MoEFCC

Considering that the activities undertaken pursuant to CER are akin to the one of the activities prescribed under schedule VII of the Companies Act, 2013 – specifically “ensuring environmental sustainability” among others, it is intuitive to say that expenditure towards CER should be includes as compliance of CSR commitment.

However, on perusal of several OMs and summary record of meeting of the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC), formed under MoEFFC, one may have to re-think on the above ratio. The relevant extracts of the OMs and summary record are reproduced below for perusal:

  1. [4]2014 OM:
  1. ….In case these activities (or some of these activities) are proposed to be covered by the project proponent under CSR activities, the project proponent should commit providing for the same. In either case, the position regarding the agreed activities, their funding mechanism and the phasing should be clearly reflected in the EC letter.

Author’s Comment: This indicates that overlap might be acceptable provided the commitment is clear from the beginning.

  1. [5]Summary record of 2nd meeting of EAC – 2015 –

The Member Secretary has informed the Committee that presently the Expert Appraisal Committee has been insisting for earmarking either 2.5% of the total cost of the project or 5% of the total cost of the project towards Enterprises Social Commitment / Corporate Social Responsibility, depending upon the size of the project. In this context, copy of Office Memorandum No. J-11013/25/2014-IA.I dated 11.08.2014 issued by the Ministry regarding guidelines on Environment Sustainability and CSR related issue was circulated. Deliberating on the issue, the Committee was of the view that the name of ‘Enterprises Social Commitment’ or ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ in respect of environment clearance should be in the first place considered for replacement by the name ‘Environmental Conservation Support Activities’.

Author’s Comment: From this discussion, it seems that the terms ESC / now CER and CSR have been used interchangeably and therefore CER and CSR commitment can overlap.

However, in the same paragraph, the decision taken by the EAC has been recorded as follows:

The Committee unanimously agreed for uniform earmarking 2.5% of the capital cost of the project towards Environmental Conservation Support Activities, in addition to the committee’s  [this seems to be a typo error- should be “company”] commitment under the Companies Act.

Author’s Comment: This indicates that CER and CSR are two independent commitments and responsibility of the company and both have to be individually followed and fulfilled.

In one of the scrutiny and deliberation as discussed in the summary records, in the matter of Expansion of Cement Plant, Clinker (1.8 MTPA to 2.6 MTPA) at Village Rauri, Tehsil Arki, District Solan, Himachal Pradesh by M/s Ambuja Cement Ltd. [F. No. J-11011/986/2008-IA-II (I)], one the specific condition was as follows:

  1. At least 5 % of the total cost of the project shall be earmarked towards the Enterprise Social Commitment based on Public Hearing Issues and item-wise details along with time bound action plan shall be prepared and submitted to the Ministry’s Regional Office at Dehradun. Implementation of such program shall be ensured accordingly in a time bound manner.

The project proponent mentioned that they have already spent an amount of 3.01%, 4.06% and 2.57% of the net profit after tax (PAT) towards CSR activities in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively in compliance of the Companies Act 2013. It has been requested to consider the proposal to waive-off the Specific Condition No. XV, as mentioned above.

The Committee noted that the expenditure of 5% of the total cost of the project towards ESC was prescribed for a period of 5 years. Based on the discussions, held the Committee decided that instead of waiving off the specific condition, it is recommended to extend the implementation period of 5 years for implementing ESC activities to a period of 10 years, which the proponent had also agreed to.

Author’s Comment: This again seems to indicate that MoEFCC is not inclined to mix the CER commitment with the CSR commitment.

  1. [6]Summary record of 2nd meeting of EAC – 2016 –

In all the ECs being granted, as a part of specific condition, the CER commitment has been recorded as below:

At least 2.5% of the total cost of the project shall be earmarked towards the Enterprise Social Commitment based on Public Hearing issues, locals need and item-wise details along with time bound action plan shall be prepared and submitted to the Ministry’s Regional Office. Implementation of such program shall be ensured by constituting a Committee comprising of the proponent, representatives of village Panchayat and District Administration. Action taken report in this regard shall be submitted to the Ministry’s Regional Office.

In addition to the above provision of ESC, the proponent shall prepare a detailed CSR Plan for the next 5 years including annual physical and financial targets for the existing-cum-expansion project, which includes village-wise, sector-wise (Health, Education, Sanitation, Skill Development and infrastructure etc) activities in consultation with the local communities and administration. The CSR Plan will include the amount of 2% retain annual profits as provided for in Clause 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 which provides for 2% of the average net profits of previous 3 years towards CSR activities for life of the project. A separate budget head shall be created and the annual capital and revenue expenditure on various activities of the Plan shall be submitted as part of the Compliance Report to RO. The details of the CSR Plan shall also be uploaded on the company website and shall also be provided in the Annual Report of the company.

Author’s Comment: The view of keeping CER and CSR as two independent commitments seems to being continued.

  1. [7]2018 OM (supersedes 2014 OM) –. Relevant extracts have been reproduced:

(I) The cost of CER is to be in addition to the cost envisaged for the implementation of the EIA/EMP which includes the measures for the pollution control, environmental protection and conservation, R&R, wildlife and forest conservation/protection measures including the NPV and Compensatory Aforestation, required, if any, and any other activities, to be derived as part of the EIA process. 


(IV) The proposed activities shall be restricted to the affected area around the project.

(VI) The entire activities proposed under the CER shall be treated as project and shall be monitored. The monitoring report shall be submitted to the regional office as a part of half-yearly compliance report, and to the District Collector. It should be posted on the website of the project proponent.


Author’s Comment: The provision with respect to commitment of any particular CER activity as CSR, as was present in the 2014 OM, has been dropped.

  1. [8]Minutes of 53rd meeting of EAC (Infrastructure-2) held in 2020:

While presenting the parameters of the Project to obtain EC, Tamil Nadu Waste Management Limited, represented as follows:

(xi) The CER fund shall be allocated as per the MoEF&CC office memorandum 65/2017-IA.III dated, 1st May, 2018, which is around Rs. 0.48 Crores which shall be utilized over a period of 3 years. The CSR budget will be allocated as per rules prescribed by the Government of India / Companies Act 2013.

  1. [9]Standard EC Conditions – MoEFCC OM No. F.No. 22- 34/2018-IA.III dated 9th August 2018:

7. Corporate Environment Responsibility


  1. The company shall have a well laid down environmental policy duly approve by the Board of Directors. The environmental policy should prescribe for standard operating procedures to have proper checks and balances and to bring into focus any infringements/deviation/violation of the environmental / forest /wildlife norms/ conditions. The company shall have defined system of reporting infringements / deviation / violation of the environmental / forest / wildlife norms / conditions and / or shareholders / stake holders. The copy of the board resolution in this regard shall be submitted to the MoEF&CC as a part of six-monthly report.

iii. A separate Environmental Cell both at the project and company head quarter level, with qualified personnel shall be set up under the control of senior Executive, who will directly to the head of the organization.

  1. Action plan for implementing EMP and environmental conditions along with responsibility matrix of the company shall be prepared and shall be duly approved by competent authority. The year wise funds earmarked for environmental protection measures shall be kept in separate account and not to be diverted for any other purpose. Year wise progress of implementation of action plan shall be reported to the Ministry/Regional Office along with the Six Monthly Compliance Report.
  2. Self environmental audit shall be conducted annually. Every three years third party environmental audit shall be carried out.

Author’s Comment: Looking at the elaborative independent requirements / compliance in respect of CER, the view about the intent of the Ministry to keep CER independent of CSR gets stronger

Provisions of Companies Act, 2013

It is also pertinent to note that pursuant to Rule 2(d)(vi) of the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 ,“activities carried out for fulfilment of any other statutory obligations under any law in force in India” is excluded from the definition of CSR. The idea behind this exclusion seems to be that what a company is obligated to spend as a part of its statutory obligation is anyway a mandatory condition. Such statutory compliance, even if it results into a spending, cannot be regarded as CSR spending. An example may be payment of taxes many of which are dedicated to infrastructure activities. Swachh Bharat Cess is specifically towards cleanliness. However, one cannot take such an expense as a spending towards CSR. Hence, (CSR) responsibility and statutory obligations cannot be inter-mixed.

Difference between CSR and CER

While already discussed above, the difference in CER and CSR is being highlighted:

  1. CSR spending is profit-linked whereas CER spending is project cost-linked. Hence, CER may, at times be applicable even before the company has started making profits.
  2. Another major difference between EC-triggered spending and CSR spending is that there is a wide range of activities which may qualify as CSR. However, the EC forces these activities to be focused and restricted around village/social development in the areas affected by the project only. In that sense, the EC forces the entity to give back to the local area where the company has an environment footprint.


While it would have been rational to include CER under CSR, but this seems to be grey in terms of clarity, both legally and practically. There are two school of thought that is being endorsed – one, that the CER and CSR are two different statutory obligation under two different ministries and therefore should be honoured independently; the other, and more logical argument is that both the commitment are meant to return back to the society and environment on which the company has left its footprint. Accordingly, taking a view that CER and CSR commitments are mutually independent would be putting the company to double compliance for a single objective. Considering that CER is applicable, irrespective of profit, the same should ideally be aligned with CSR plan of the company where section 135 of Companies Act, 2013 is applicable.

While this question may lurk until there is any explicit clarity from either of the ministries, from the bi-annual disclosure on compliance report being submitted by the companies, it seems that India Inc is divided on this matter.


[1] CER has also been termed as Enterprise Social Commitment (“ESC”) in several ECs granted to applicants. Later, in the Office Memorandum (OM) No. F. No. 22-65 / 2017-IA. .III of MoEFFC dated May 01, 2018, the terms CER was used.

















Conflicting provisions on CSR applicability under CA, 2013 & CSR Rules

CSR Rules require further tailoring to fit

CS Ajay Kumar K V | Vinod Kothari and Company

Corporate Social Responsibility (‘CSR’) framework in India has always been adaptive to changing times and has witnessed quite an evolution. The basic idea behind the CSR provisions was to promote responsible and sustainable business philosophy at a broad level and to encourage companies to come up with innovative ideas and robust management systems to address social and environmental concerns of the local area and other needy areas in the country.

Despite the evolution and series of amendments, certain provisions in the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 (‘CSR Rules’) continue to conflict with the requirements under section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘CA, 2013‘). This article discusses two of such conflicting provisions relating to CSR applicability.

As per Section 135 (1) of Companies Act, 2013, CSR provisions were originally applicable to companies meeting the thresholds of INR 500 crore net worth or INR 1000 crore turnover or INR 5 crore net profit during any financial year. The meaning of the term ‘any financial year’ was clarified by MCA to imply any of the three preceding financial years. This was amended vide the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 (‘CAA, 2017’) thereby shifting the applicability on companies meeting any of the aforesaid criteria during the immediately preceding financial year, on the basis of recommendation made by High-Level Committee on Corporate Social Responsibility (‘HLC-CSR’)1. Further, in terms of Section 384 (2) of CA, 2013 CSR provisions are applicable to foreign companies as well.

Conflicting provision under CSR Rules

  • On Applicability [Rule 3 (1)]

Rule 3 (1) of CSR Rules provides that a company including its holding or subsidiary, and a foreign company defined in Section 2 (42) of CA, 2013 fulfilling the criteria specified under Section 135 (1) of CA, 2013 are required to comply with CSR related provisions.

Section 135 (1) is absolutely clear on the applicability par. Therefore, the intent to include holding and subsidiary company of a company that meets the criteria is unclear. If the holding or subsidiary company independently meets the criteria specified under Section 135 (1), only then it will be required to comply with CSR related provisions.  The applicability cannot be linked with applicability of the Section 135 (1) to the holding or subsidiary company.

  • Cessation of Applicability [Rule 3 (2)]

In terms of Section 135 (1) read with Section 135 (5), companies meeting the aforesaid criteria during the immediately preceding financial year are required to constitute CSR Committee and spend in every financial year, at least 2% of the average net profits of the company made during the three immediately preceding financial years. Consequently, companies not meeting any of the aforesaid criteria during the immediately preceding financial year are not required to ensure CSR related compliances[1].

However, Rule 3 (2) continues to provide a time frame of 3 consecutive financial years as an eligibility to discontinue ensuring compliance under Section 135. The said provisions have become redundant after enforcement of CAA, 2017. Relevant extract of HLC-CSR is as under:

 “The Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 has amended the eligibility criteria as being based on financial parameters of the ‘immediately preceding’ financial year instead of three immediately preceding financial years prevalent until then. Rule 3(2) of the Companies (CSR Policy) Rules, 2014 specifies that companies which cease to be eligible under Section 135(1) of the Act for three consecutive financial years shall not be required to comply with provisions of Section 135.

 In view of the 2017 amendment, Rule 3(2) is redundant. “

Power of Central Government to revise thresholds

The Report of the Company Law Committee in 2019[2] based on the experience gained from the industry recommended the revision of the net worth/ turnover/ net profit thresholds specified in Section 135(1) from time to time to suit the changing requirements of the economy. The extracts of the committee note were;

“The Committee noted the merit in ensuring that static financial thresholds do not come in the way of corporate-driven socio-economic development and environmental conservation. In order to keep such revision process timely, the Committee recommended insertion of suitable provisions in the Section 135(1), which would enable the Central Government to enhance such limits by way of rules.”

However, the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 do not provide for enabling power to the Central Government to revise the statutory thresholds framed 8 years back.


Prior to enforcement of CAA, 2017, the applicability was required to be ascertained based on the net-worth, turnover and net profits during any of the three preceding financial years. Therefore, Rule 3(2) of CSR Rules also provided a similar timeline for determining inapplicability of the CSR related provisions.

However, pursuant to amendment in Section 135 (1) by way of CAA, 2017 the Company is required to ascertain applicability by referring to the net-worth, turnover and net profits during the immediately preceding financial year. Accordingly, the inapplicability provided in Rule 3 (2) also was required to be aligned with amended Section 135 (1). Despite the deletion recommended by HLC-CSR, the provisions reflect under CSR Rules. Accordingly, companies need not wait till deletion of Rule 3 (2) as the same is anyways redundant post enforcement of amendment made in Section 135 (1).

Further, Rule 3 (1) of CSR Rules does not provide any additional clarity on the applicability and should be suitably amended. Lastly, enabling power to review static thresholds may also be inserted in Section 135 (1) of CA, 2013.




Our other material on CSR can be accessed through the below link:

Corpus contributions: Whether CSR?

Ajay Kumar K V | Vinod Kothari and Company


Corporate Social Responsibility (‘CSR’) is a concept whereby an entity integrates its business with the social goals in order to achieve a socio-economic balance. In India, section 135 of Companies Act, 2013 (‘Companies Act’) and the rules made thereunder govern CSR activities to be mandatorily undertaken by companies which fulfill the criteria as specified in the said Act. The CSR norms have recently undergone substantial changes[1].

When the CSR provisions were initially notified, corpus contribution to specific funds & activities was considered to be CSR expenditure under the extant CSR Rules (see, Rule 7 before amendments). The term ‘contribution to corpus’ led to confusion among the industry and MCA came out with a clarification letter (No. 05/01/2014- CSR) dated 18th June, 2014[2] clarifying that the contribution to Corpus of a Trust/ society/ section 8 companies etc. will qualify as CSR expenditure as long as (a) the Trust/ society/ section 8 companies etc. is created exclusively for undertaking CSR activities or (b) where the corpus is created exclusively for a purpose directly relatable to a subject covered in Schedule VII of the Act.

However, the CSR rules, in their present form, do not mention the term ‘corpus’ anywhere. As such, the question is whether corpus contribution is still an eligible CSR expenditure.

What is ‘corpus’?

‘Corpus’, in the context of trusts, etc. would generally mean contributions in the nature of capital. The courts and tribunals have opined that corpus specific voluntary contributions are of capital nature and hence are not taxable at the hands of the trust. In Sukhdeo Charity Estate v. Commissioner of Income-Tax[3], the Rajasthan High Court observed as follows:

“”Corpus” is a Latin word and the English meaning of it is a “body”. In Random House Dictionary, college edition, page 301, one of the meanings of “corpus” is “a principal or capital sum, as opposed to interest or income”. Similar is the meaning of the word “corpus” in Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th edition, page 310, Thus, a capital amount in the form of money, movable or immovable property and the donations received by a charitable trust for specific purposes may be said to be corpus or remained any capital in a fund in contrast to income.

The Technical Guide[4] issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India observes specific features of ‘corpus’ in the context of non-profit organisations (NPOs). The Technical Guide also discussed various kinds of ‘funds’ as may be maintained by the NPOs – restricted funds, unrestricted funds, etc. Restricted funds are subject to certain conditions set out by the contributors and agreed to by the NPO when accepting the contributions. The restriction may apply to the use of the moneys received or income earned from the investment of such moneys or both. Funds, the use of which is subject to legal restrictions, are also considered as restricted funds.

See also, exposure draft on Uniform Accounting & Reporting Framework for NGOs[5] which also makes similar observations.

Corpus contribution under Income Tax Act

Voluntary contributions to trusts, etc. are made taxable vide the definition of income under Section 2(24) (iia) of the Income Tax Act which reads as under-

“2(24)(iia) Voluntary contributions received by a trust created wholly or partly for charitable or religious purposes or by an institution established wholly or partly for such purposes or by an association or institution referred to in clause (21) or clause (23), or by a fund or trust or institution referred to in sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or by any university or other educational institution referred to in sub-clause (iiiad) or sub-clause (vi) or by any hospital or other institution referred to in sub-clause (iiiae) or sub-clause (via) of clause (23C) of section 10 or by an electoral trust.”

As per Section 12 of the Income Tax Act, any voluntary contributions received by a trust created wholly for charitable or religious purposes or by an institution established wholly for such purposes (not being contributions made with a specific direction that they shall form part of the corpus of the trust or institution) shall for the purposes of section 11 be deemed to be income derived from property held under trust wholly for charitable or religious purposes.

It is a settled legal proposition, in case of a registered Trust under the Income-Tax Act, the corpus specific voluntary contributions are outside the scope of income as defined in section 2(24)(iia) of the Act due to their “capital nature”.

See, Sukhdeo Charity Estate v. Commissioner of Income-Tax (supra).  In ITO v. Shri Sachyaya Mataji Trust [ITA No.538/Jodh/2013,] dated 09/05/2014[6], the Jodhpur bench of ITAT held that if a voluntary contribution is made with a specific direction, it shall be treated as capital of the trust for carrying on its charitable or religious activities. Then such an income falls under section 11(1) (d) as is not liable to tax. If the intention of the donor is to give that money to a trust to keep in trust the account in deposit and utilise the income therefrom for carrying on a particular activity, it satisfies the definition part of the corpus. The assessee would be entitled to the benefit of exemptions from payment of tax.

On an analysis of the above case laws and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, ‘corpus’ would include sums given with specific directions.

Thus voluntary contribution made with a specific direction as in the case of a CSR project contribution is a capital receipt for the Trust and hence not taxable as income. The money received in these funds has a specific purpose and not available for conducting activities that are ancillary to the main objects of the trust.

Corpus Contribution and CSR

The above discussion brings in more clarity with respect to the term ‘corpus contribution’. Corpus contribution, as is generally understood, is a contribution of capital nature, given with specific directions. In respect of CSR, since it has a specific purpose and is mandated by the law, it can be termed as corpus contribution.

The objective of CSR is broad and restricting CSR to only projects/programmes to be undertaken by the company (either directly or through implementing agencies) would narrow down the benefits which CSR provisions intend to offer. As such, fund contributions (of course, subject to certain conditions), should qualify as CSR Expenditure.

In Technical Guide on Accounting of CSR Funds by Third Parties [February, 2021][7], para 26 states as follows –

“26. The third parties i.e. section 8 company, or a registered trust or registered society may receive Corpus donation, which could be a CSR expenditure in the hands of the donor company if the required conditions are complied with. Corpus donations are with a specific direction regarding the use of the funds and characteristically capital in nature. MCA in General Circular No.21/2014 dated 18th June 2014 has clarified that contribution to Corpus of a Trust/ society/ section 8 companies etc. will qualify as CSR expenditure . . .”

Therefore, note that, such corpus contribution will still be subject to the 2 conditions as stated in the MCA Circular of 2014 (see, above). Also, there must be clear directions on the part of the company to the said entity as regards activities to be undertaken, modalities of fund utilisation, etc. and the company shall use appropriate monitoring and reporting measures to satisfy itself that the funds have been utilised for the specified activity/activities.

Here, one should also distinguish between fund contribution to an entity and making disbursement of funds to an implementing agency. In our earlier article titled ‘Understanding the borderline between implementing agencies and beneficiaries’[8], we have discussed distinguishing features of an ‘implementing agencies’, and ‘beneficiaries’ and the consequential impact of the same on the CSR compliances by the company. In case of fund contribution, the entity shall rather be a ‘beneficiary’ and not an ‘implementing agency’.


Basis discussions above, one may view that corpus or fund contributions should qualify as CSR expenditure provided that, the following conditions are fulfilled –

  • (a) the entity is created exclusively for undertaking CSR activities or (b) where the fund/corpus is created exclusively for a purpose directly relatable to a subject covered in Schedule VII of the Act.
  • the company gives specific directions to the entity with respect to activities, etc. to be undertaken, and for utilisation of the funds so contributed;
  • the entity provides proper fund utilisation reports to the company such that the company can assess impact of the contributions and satisfy itself that the funds have been actually used for the specified activities.

The above conditions are in addition to the overarching regulatory requirements of having a CSR committee, and a well-defined CSR policy, etc. Any corpus/fund contribution proposed to be made shall be subject to overall regulatory requirements.

[1]  Read our various articles on




[4] See Technical Guide on Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations here:



[7] ICAI:


Understanding the borderline between implementing agencies and beneficiaries

Sikha Bansal, Partner and Payal Agarwal, Executive 


Read more

FAQs on CSR 2021 Amendments


Our other related material on CSR can be accessed through below link:

Does new CSR Rules suggest activities in “normal course of business” to be covered under CSR?

– Amendment leads to ambiguity

By Megha Saraf

Manager | Corporate Law Division

The world has taken the hit due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research institutes over the globe have been trying day and night to develop a suitable vaccine to fight against the novel COVID-19 pandemic. Further, various companies or institutes in the country which have also shown positive results towards the development of vaccines and have claimed the success in it by end of the year 2021. Naturally, it is not only large number of human resource that is essential but also a significant proportion of money to produce results. While the intent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is to make the profit making companies to spend a specific portion for the society, various stakeholders have raised a question on whether such expenditure on the research and development (‘R&D’) for producing vaccines or medical devices should qualify as a CSR expenditure or not? Also, whether the same shall qualify even if it is in the normal course of business of such a company?

The answer to both the questions is in affirmative after the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) issued two Notifications[1][2] dated 24th August, 2020, amending the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 (‘CSR Rules’). In light of the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the said Notifications have brought in two amendments:

  • Bifurcation of clause (ix) under Schedule VII;
  • Changes under the CSR Rules.

The Article is a brief snapshot of the amendments.

Read more

MCA widens CSR for defence personnel

Measures for the CAPF and CMPF veterans and dependants now a part of CSR activity

Ankit Vashishth, Executive, Vinod Kothari and Company;


Schedule VII of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘Act’) currently includes measures taken for the armed forces veterans, war widows and their dependants as one of the CSR activities. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) vide its Notification[1] dated 23rd June, 2020 has included contribution made towards the benefit of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) and Central Para Military Forces (CPMF) veterans and their dependents including widows, within the ambit of CSR.

MCA has issued several notifications either to clarify or broaden the ambit of Schedule VII. This Notification is yet another step taken by the MCA for widening the scope of CSR activities to include CAPF and CMPF veterans and their dependants and war widows.

This note tries to provide a quick coverage on the said amendment.

Difference between Armed Forces and CAPF/CPMF

Armed Forces CAPF CPMF
The term “armed forces” basically means – Indian Armed Forces which are the military forces of the Republic of India. It comprises three professional uniformed services :

1.   The Indian Army

2.   The Indian Navy

3.   The Indian Air Force

CAPF (Central Armed Police Force)[2]  consists of :

1.         Assam Rifles (AR);

2.         Border Security Force (BSF);

3.         Central Industrial Security    Force (CISF);

4.         Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF);

5.         Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP);

6.         National Security Guard (NSG); and

7.       Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

The nomenclature CAPF will be used uniformly for CPMF as per the Office Memorandum [3]issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs issued on March 18, 2011

Current CSR spending pattern and changes expected due to the amendment

The current pattern for CSR spending for armed forces veterans, war widows and their dependants include contributions to several funds like:

  1. Armed Forces Flag Day Fund (AFFDF)[4]
  2. Army Wives Welfare Association (AWWA)[5]
  3. The Army Welfare Fund Battle Casualties[6]

Apart from donating to these funds, companies have also provided financial relief to the martyr’s families and have conducted workshops for the children of war widows as a part of their CSR projects.

Further, in addition to the above, contribution to “National Defence Fund” which is used for the welfare of the members of the Armed Forces (including Para Military Forces) should be eligible for being a CSR activity.

As a result of the enhanced scope for CSR spending for CAPF/ CAMF, contribution to the fund “Bharat Ke Veer Corpus Fund”[7], which was previously not eligible for CSR considering the fact that it specifically benefits CAPF, will now be covered as per the amendment. Accordingly, any contribution to this fund will now qualify as a CSR activity.

High Level Committee on CSR

MCA had constituted[8] a High Level Committee (HLC) on CSR in February, 2015 under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Corporate Affairs) to review the existing CSR framework and formulate a coherent policy on CSR and further make recommendations on strengthening the CSR ecosystem, including monitoring implementation and evaluation of outcomes. Later, the HLC on CSR was re-constituted[9] in November, 2018. The scope of HLC was widened to include recommendation of guidelines for enforcement of CSR provisions. Though the Report discussed on amending Schedule VII in line with promoting sports, senior citizens’ welfare, welfare of differently abled persons, disaster management, and heritage, however, it did not consider widening the clause relating to the scope of armed forces in the Schedule.

Further, as evident from the data given in the HLC Committee Report[10], CSR expenditure made on armed force veterans, war widows/ dependents have seen an upward trend over the years, however it forms a very small proportion of the total CSR expenditure made.

Concluding Remarks

The service spirit of CAPF is no less than that of the Indian Army. Acknowledging this fact MCA has brought this amendment. While all the areas for CSR are extremely important for the overall socio-economic welfare and development, the measures taken for the benefit of veterans and dependants of the armed forces and CAPF/ CPMF is an extremely noble activity.

Link to our other articles:

CSR: A ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ or a ‘Corporate Social Compulsion’?

Proposed changes in CSR Rules

FAQs on Corporate Social Responsibility

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[3] Office Memorandum can be viewed here



[6] The Army Welfare Fund Battle Causalities







New CSR avenues, innovative bonds and much more in the Social Stock Exchange package!

Timothy Lopes, Executive, Vinod Kothari Consultants

In the Union Budget of 2019-2020 the Hon’ble Finance Minister proposed “to initiate steps towards creating an electronic fund raising platform – a Social Stock Exchange (‘SSE’) – under the regulatory ambit of Securities and Exchange Board of India (‘SEBI’) for listing social enterprises and voluntary organizations working for the realization of a social welfare objective so that they can raise capital as equity, debt or as units like a mutual fund.”

A Working Group was subsequently formed on 19th September, 2019 to recommend possible structures and mechanisms for the SSE. We have tried to analyse and examine what the framework would look like based on global SSEs already prevalent in a separate write up.

On 1st June, 2020, the Working Group on Social Stock Exchange published its report for public comments. In this write up we intend to analyse the recommendations made by the working group along with its impact.

The idea of a Social Stock Exchange

Social enterprises in India exist in large numbers and in several legal forms, for e.g. trusts, societies, section 8 companies, companies, partnership firms, sole proprietorships, etc. Further, a social enterprise can be either a For-Profit Enterprise (‘FPE’) or a Non-Profit Enterprise (‘NPO’). The ultimate objective of these enterprises is to create a social impact by carrying out philanthropic or sustainable development activities.

Certain gaps exist for social enterprises in terms of funding, having a common repository able to track these entities and their performance. The sources of funding for social enterprises have been philanthropic funding, CSR, impact investing, government agencies, etc.


Funding is important in terms of the effectiveness of NPOs in creating an impact. The funding, however, is contingent upon demonstration of impact or outcomes.

Here comes the idea and role of a social stock exchange. An SSE proposed to be set up is intended to fill the gaps not only in terms of funding, but also to put in place a comprehensive framework that creates standards for measuring and reporting social impact.

Who is eligible to be listed on the SSE?

The SSE is intended for listing of social enterprises, whether for-profit or non-profit. Listing would unlock the funds from donors, philanthropists, CSR spenders and other foundations into social enterprises.

There is no new legal form recommended by the working group which a social enterprise will have to establish in order to get listed. Rather, the existing legal forms (trusts, societies, section 8 companies, etc.) will enable a NPO or FPE to get listed through more than one mode.

Is there any minimum criteria for listing on the SSE?

In case of NPOs, the minimum reporting standards recommended to be implemented, require the NPO to report that it has received donations/contributions of at least INR 10,00,000 in the last financial year.

Further, in case of FPEs, it must have received funding from any one or more of the impact investors who are members of the Impact Investors Council. Certain eligibility conditions for equity listings would also apply in case of FPEs, as per the SEBI’s Issue of Capital, Disclosure Requirements (ICDR).

The working group has requested SEBI to look into the following aspects of eligibility and recalibrate the existing thresholds in the ICDR:

  • Minimum Net Worth;
  • Average Operating Profit;
  • Prior Holding by QIBs, and;
  • Criteria for Accredited Investor (if a role for such investors is envisaged).

Listing, compliance and penalty provisions must be aptly stringent to prevent any misuse of SSE platform by FPEs.

What is a social enterprise? Is the term defined?

Social enterprises broadly fall under two forms – A For-Profit Enterprise and a Non-Profit Enterprise.

For-Profit Enterprise – A FPE generally has a business model made to earn profits but does so with the intent of creating a social impact. An example would be creating innovative and environmental friendly products. FPEs are generally in the form of Companies.

Non-Profit Enterprise – NPOs have the intention of creating a social impact for the better good without expecting any return on investment. These are generally in the form of trusts, societies and Section 8 companies. These entities cannot issue equity. The exception to this is a section 8 company which can issue equity shares, however, there can be no dividend payment.

The working group defines a social enterprise as a class or category of enterprises that are engaging in the business of “creating positive social impact”. However, the group does not recommend a legal/regulatory definition but recommends a minimum reporting standard that brings out this aspect clearly, by requiring all social enterprises, whether they are FPEs or NPOs, to state an intent to create positive social impact, to describe the nature of the impact they wish to create, and to report the impact that they have created. There will be an additional requirement for FPEs to conform to the assessment mechanism to be developed by SEBI.

Therefore, an enterprise is “social” not by virtue of satisfying a legal definition but by virtue of committing to the minimum reporting standard.

Since there would be no legal definition to classify as a social enterprise, a careful screening process would be required in order to enable only genuine social enterprises to list on the exchange.

Who are the possible participants of the SSE?

What are the instruments that can be listed? What are the other funding structures? What is the criteria for listing?

In case of Section 8 companies, there is no restriction on issue of shares or debt. However, there is no dividend payment allowed on equity shares. Further, there is no real regulatory hurdle in listing shares or debt instruments of Section 8 companies. However, so far listing of Section 8 companies is a non-existent concept, as these avenues have not been utilized by Section 8 companies apparently due to their inherent inability to provide financial return on investments.

The working group recognises that trusts and societies are not body corporates under the Companies Act, and hence, in the present legal framework, any bonds or debentures issued by them cannot qualify as securities under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956 (SCRA).

In this regard the working group suggests introducing a new “Zero Coupon Zero Principal” Bond to be issued by these entities. The features and other specifics of these bonds are discussed further on in this write up.

Further, it is recommended that FPEs can list their equity on the SSE subject to certain eligibility conditions for equity listings as per the SEBI’s Issue of Capital, Disclosure Requirements (ICDR) and social impact reporting.

Funding structures and other instruments are discussed further on in the write up.

What are the minimum reporting standards?

One of the important pre-requisites to listing on the SSE is to commit to the minimum reporting standards prescribed. The working group has laid down minimum reporting standards for the immediate term to be implemented as soon as the SSE goes live. The minimum reporting standards broadly cover the areas shown in the figure below –

The details of the minimum reporting standard are stated in Annexure 2 to the working group report. The working group states in its report that over time, the reporting requirements can begin to incorporate more rigour in a graded and deliberate manner.

Overall, it seems as though the reporting framework at the present stage is sufficient to measure performance and identify truly genuine social enterprises. The framework sets a benchmark for reporting by NPOs and FPEs and will provide the requisite comfort to investors.

Innovative bonds and funding structures

The SSE’s role is clearly not limited to only listing of securities and trading therein. The working group has recommended several innovative funding mechanisms for NPOs that may or even may not end up in creation of a listable security. Following are the highlights of the proposed structures –

1. Zero coupon zero principal bonds –

The exact modalities of this instrument are yet to be worked out by SEBI.

2. Mutual Fund Structure –

  • Under this structure, a conventional closed-ended fund structure is proposed wherein the Mutual Fund acts as the intermediary and aggregates capital from various individual and institutional investors to invest in market-based instruments;
  • The returns generated out of such fund is will be channelled to the NPOs who in turn will utilise the funds for its stated project;
  • The principal component will be repaid back to the investors, while the returns would be considered as donations made by them;
  • There could also be a specific tax benefit arising out of this structure;
  • The other benefit of this structure is that the role of the intermediary can be played by existing AMCs.

3. The Social/ Development Impact Bond/ Lending Partner Structure –

These bonds are unique in a way that they returns on the bonds are linked to the success of the project being funded. This is similar to a structured finance framework involving the following –

  • Risk Investors/ Lenders (Banks/ NBFCs) – Provide the initial capital investment for the project;
  • Intermediary – Acts as the intermediating body between all parties. The intermediary will pass on the funds to the NPO;
  • NPO (Implementing Agency) – will use the funds for achieving the social outcomes promised;
  • 3rd party evaluator – An independent evaluator who will measure and validate the outcomes of the project;
  • Outcome Funder – Based on the third party evaluation the outcome funders will pay the Principal and Interest to the risk investors/ lending partners in case the outcome of the project is successful. In case the outcome is not successful the outcome funders have the option to not pay the risk investors/ lending partners.

Although banks may not be looking into risky lending, the structure provides incentive to the bank in the form of Priority Sector Lending (PSL) qualification. In order to meet their PSL targets, banks may choose to lend under this structure.

4. Pay-for-success through grants –

This structure is where a new CSR aspect comes in. The working group recommends a structure which is similar to the pay-for-success structures stated earlier however, this required the CSR arm of a Company to select the NPO for implementation of the project. The CSR funds are then kept in an escrow account earmarked for pay-for-success, for a pre-defined time period over which the impact is expected to be created (say 3 years).

The initial capital required by the NPO to achieve the outcomes, will be provided by an interim funding partner (typically a domestic philanthropic organization, and distinct from the third-party evaluator).

If the CSR funder finds that the NPO has achieved the outcomes, then it pays out the CSR capital from the escrow account partly to the interim funding partner (similar to the earlier mentioned pay-for success structures), and partly to the NPO in the form of an accelerator grant up to 10% of the program cost in case the NPO exceeds the pre-defined outcome targets. The grant to the NPO is designed to provide additional support for non-programmatic areas such as research, capacity building, etc.

If the CSR funder finds that the NPO has not achieved the outcomes, then it either rolls over the CSR capital in the escrow account (if the pre-defined time period is not yet over), or routes the CSR capital to items provided under Schedule 7 of the Companies Act such as the PM’s Relief Fund (if the pre-defined time period is over).

An avenue for Corporate Social Responsibility

The implementation of the SSE will provide a new platform, not just for CSR spending but also a trading platform for trading in a “CSR certificates” between corporates with excess CSR expenditure and those with a deficit in a particular year.

Investment in securities listed on the SSE are likely to qualify as CSR expenditure. However, necessary amendments in the Companies Act, 2013 will also be required to permit the same to qualify as CSR expenditure. The working group has made the necessary policy recommendations in its report.

Trading platform for CSR spending –

India is one of the only countries that has mandated CSR spending. In a particular year, a Company may fail to meet its required spending obligations owing to several reasons. The High Level Committee on CSR had recommended the transfer of unspent CSR funds to a separate account and the said amount should be spent within 3 years from the transfer failing which the funds would be transferred to a fund specified in Schedule VII. The necessary provisions were inserted by the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2019, however, the same is yet to be notified.

The working group has proposed a new model that could solve the issue of unspent CSR funds. It is recommended that CSR Certificates [may be negotiable instruments, somewhat similar to Priority Sector Lending Certificates (PSLCs)], be enabled to be bought and sold on a separate trading platform. This will allow Companies which have unspent CSR funds to transfer these funds to those Companies that have spent excess for CSR in a particular year. This in turn motivates Companies to spend more than the minimum required CSR amount in a particular year.

The certificates are recommended to have a validity of 3-5 years but may be used only once. In order to avoid any profit making on excess CSR spends, it is recommended that these transactions must involve only a flat transaction fee that gets charged to the platform and involves actual transfer of funds.

Further, the working group has recommended that If the platform as described above succeeds in facilitating the trading of CSR certificates, the government might then consider licensing private platforms that provide an auction mechanism for the trading of CSR certificates (similar to the RBI’s licenses for Trade Receivables Discounting Systems or TReDS). However, this would require additional clarifications on whether CSR certificates must have the status of negotiable instruments or not and on how companies are to treat any profits from the sale of such certificates.


The recommendations of the working group has given an expanded role to the SSE. The working group also attempted to address the role of the SSE in terms of COVID-19 by proposing the creation of a separate COVID-19 Aid Fund to activate solutions such as pay-for-success bonds which can be used to provide loan guarantees to NBFC-MFIs that wish to extend debt moratoriums to their customers.

Necessary changes in law have also been recommended, while several other tax incentives have been recommended by the working group.

The SSE framework seems to be interesting in the Indian context. Nevertheless, the implementation of the same is yet to be seen.

Clarification on eligibility of CSR Expenditure during COVID-19

Vinod Kothari & Company