As the county moves to GST, we are offering extensive research, trainings, workshops and services to help our clients transition to the new regime.

We anticipate clients in the financial services industry to expect a bouquet of services to enable a smooth transition to the GST. Some of the services we are providing are:

-Impact study of GST:  includes studying implications of GST on organizational cash flows
-Assisting in identifying the different benefits that can be availed by the company
-Preparation of detailed checklists for GST administration
-Organizing intermediate and advanced training programs for groups of employees based on specific organizational needs
-Reviewing the existing documentation to ensure that they are aligned with the law

Write to us at gst@vinodkothari.com if you wish to know further details with respect to the above.

For our workshops and training click here

Please drop an email to events@vinodkothari.com to register your interest.

Applicability of GST on penal charges

By Yutika Lohia (yutika@vinodkothari.com)

Introduction

The Goods & Services Tax (GST) has been the biggest tax reform in India founded on the notion of ‘one nation, one market, one tax’. It has and will further affect the entire economy including core industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, finance, service, infrastructure etc. The tax reform has been touted to create a significant positive impact on the economy in the long run. Unfortunately however, GST has not been exception to the fact that any big transition faces short term pains. The GST council has been receiving numerous queries and doubts from the myriad industries and trading associations regarding its applicability and nuances on the supply of various goods and services. One such concern had been on the issue of its applicability on additional/penal interest.

Recently the Council came up with a circular on “Clarification regarding applicability of GST on additional / penal interest” on 28th June, 2019[1] to address the issue.

The word “penal”

Black’s law dictionary defines penalty as ‘punishment imposed by statute as a consequence of the commission of a certain specified offense.” Subsequently as such the word “penal” is something relating to or containing a penalty. To put it in perspective, any default in payment of a loan transaction or in the supply of goods or services is liable for a penalty, which may be fixed or variable and thus may be in the name of additional interest or penalty interest, or overdue interest.

In a financial transaction, when there is a delay in the payment of EMI by the customer/borrower, the lender collects penal /default interest as additional interest for the period of delay, determined in days, months or years as per the agreed terms between the two.

Chargeability of GST

Penal charge is levied when there is delayed payment in a money-to-money transaction or when there is a supply of goods or services.

First let us understand whether the penal interest will be included in the value of supply.

As per section 15(2)(d) of the CGST Act, value of supply includes “interest or late fee or penalty for delayed payment of any consideration for any supply.”

Therefore, any interest or penalty paid for delayed payment in the supply of goods or service or a loan transaction shall be included in the value of supply i.e. the consideration amount.

Further, penal charges will not be covered under Schedule II- Activities to be treated as a supply of goods or services in clause 5(e), where supply of services include “agreeing to the obligation to refrain from an act, or to tolerate an act or a situation, or to do an act”

The expression “to tolerate an act” used in the above clause, should be understood to cover instances where the consideration is being charged by one person in order to allow another person to undertake any particular activity. Therefore it is very clear that at the very inception of the transaction, the intention of one party is to undertake an activity and the other party shall allow the same without any deterrent. To say, the contract is entered to allow the other person to carry out an activity, and not as a penalty or limit the person for carrying out such act in future.

Furthermore, the word “obligation” used in the clause 5(e) of Schedule II where the service recipient requests the service provider to tolerate an act/situation and the service provider obliges to tolerate for a consideration, then such a contractual relationship shall be covered in the above mentioned clause. Therefore it can be said that there is a consensus ad idem between the contracting parties.

Contrary to the above, penal interest/charges are collected only when an event occurs i.e. when there is a default in a payment of a loan transaction or supply of goods/services. The intention of the parties entering into a contract is either to avail the services in way of loan or supply of goods. Penal charges are to be paid if there is a breach in the contract and therefore it does not mean that the parties have entered into a contract for the penal interest.

Therefore penal charges does not fall under the deemed supply list given in Schedule II of the CGST Act.

As penal interest satisfies the definition of “interest” given in the notification, penal interest charged by parties who enter into a contract of giving loans will be covered under serial no. 27 of the notification dated 28th June, 2017.

Ergo, penal charges levied by the lender in a money to money transaction will have no GST implications.

Services by way of extending deposits, loans or advances in so far as the consideration is represented by way of interest or discount is an exempt service and penal charges levied by the vendor on delayed payment in case of supply of goods and services shall be under the purview of GST.

Various clarifications by the GST Council on additional/ penal interest taxability

The GST department’s explanations regarding the applicability of GST of additional / penal interest are listed below:

1.      FAQs on financial sector

The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) came up with a frequently asked questions document (FAQs documents) on financial sector[2] where taxability of additional interest in GST was discussed in serial no 45 of the document.

Any additional interest charged on default in payment of instalment in respect of any supply which is subject to GST, will be included in the value of supply and therefore will be liable to GST.

2.      Notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June 2017[3]

The department exempts services by way of extending deposits, loans or advances in so far that the consideration is represented by way of interest or discount (other than interest involved in credit card services).

Also the notification defines the word “interest” which means “interest payable in any manner in respect of any moneys borrowed or debt incurred (including a deposit, claim or other similar right or obligation) but does not include any service fee or other charge in respect of the moneys borrowed or debt incurred or in respect of any credit facility which has not been utilised.”

Further there was a ruling passed by the Advance Ruling Authority on the applicability of GST on penal interest when there is a delayed in repayment of loan.

3.      The case of Bajaj Finance Limited

In case of Bajaj Finance Limited [4](BFL), an advance ruling was passed on 6th August 2018, where it was concluded that penal charges collected by the BFL shall attract GST.

Here it was said that in case of default of payment of EMI by the customer, the applicant tolerated such an act of default or a situation and the defaulting party i.e. the customer was required to compensate the applicant by way of payment of extra amounts in addition to principal and interest. Also, the additional interest is not in the nature of interest but penal charges.

Therefore, the charges levied for any default in repayment of loan will be covered under clause 5(e) of Schedule II of the CGST Act. Also, the same is not an exempt service and will be liable to tax under GST.

4.      Circular no 102/21/2019-GST dated 28th June 2019

Given the numerous queries, the department finally released clarification on the matter. Penal interest charged on delayed payment for supply of goods and services will be included in the value of supply and will stand liable for GST. Whereas penal interest charged on the delayed payment of loan repayment will be exempt under GST.

The clarification given under the notification is discussed at length below.

The various clarifications by the GST Council on additional/ penal interest taxability is represented below in a tabular form:

 

FAQs on financial sector

 

 

Notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June 2017

 

Case of Bajaj Finance Limited

 

Circular no 102/21/2019-GST dated 28th June 2019

 

Additional interest in case of default payment of instalment in respect of supply, which is subject to GST will be included in the value of supply and therefore liable to GST Consideration by way of interest or discount on deposits loans and advances are considered as exempt service. Charges levied for any default in repayment of loan will be liable to tax under GST.

Penal interest charged on delayed payment for supply of goods and services will be included in the value of supply and will stand liable for GST. Whereas penal interest charged on the delayed payment of loan repayment will be exempt under GST

Implication of GST on penal charges

Accordingly, there are different GST implications, which are discussed by way of examples. Financing to a borrower may be done in the following ways:

  • Situation 1: ABC Co (lender/shopkeeper) sells a car to Mr A (borrower) where the selling price of the car is ₹6,00,000. However ABC Co gives Mr A an option to pay the selling price of the car in 24 months (24 instalments) i.e. ₹ 26,250 (Repayment of principal ₹ 25000 + Interest @5% i.e. ₹ 1250). The instalment shall be paid every 10th of the month, and any delay on such payment shall be liable for a penal interest of ₹ 500 per day for delay in payment.

Here the transaction between ABC Co and Mr A is that of supply of taxable goods and not a money to money transaction. The shopkeeper has broken down the payment into tranches referred to as the EMI facility. The said EMI includes interest component as well which is subjected to GST. Also a penal interest is charged on the delayed payment. Accordingly, the interest and penal charges paid on the delayed payments shall be included in the value of supply and as a consequence, it will be under the ambit of GST.

Also this situation will not be covered under clause 5(e) of the Schedule II of the CGST Act. The expression to tolerate an act cannot be said to include a situation wherein penal charges are imposed on the erring party for delayed or non-payment.

Since the above is not covered under serial no 27 of the notification[5], the same is not exempt and taxable under GST.

  • Situation 2: ABC Co sells a car to Mr. A where the selling price of the car is ₹6,00,000. Mr A has an option to avail a car loan at an interest of 12% per annum for purchasing the car from XYZ Co. The term of the loan from XYZ Co allows A, a period of 24 months to repay the loan and an additional /penal interest @1% per annum for every day of delay in payment.

Here the transaction between XYZ co and Mr. A is that of money to money transaction. The penal interest charged will be covered under serial no 27 of notification no 12/2017 Central Tax (Rate) dated the 28.06.2017 “services by way of (a) extending deposits, loans or advances in so far as the consideration is represented by way of interest or discount (other than interest involved in credit card services)”is exempted.

Accordingly, in this case, the “penal interest” charged thereon on transaction between XYZ Co and Mr. A would not be subject to GST. The value of supply by ABC Co to Mr. A would be ₹ 6,00,000 for the purpose of GST. Whereas there will no GST charged on the interest and additional/ penal interest charged by the XYZ Co (lender) as the same is considered as an exempt supply.

Therefore, the vendor has the following option to sell the car to the customer:

  • Provide a deferred payment facility by the vendor himself on account of purchase of the car, or
  • Provide a loan facility to purchase the asset through the vendor’s captive lending unit, or
  • Provide a loan facility to purchase the asset through any bank/NBFC

In all the three cases mentioned above, GST taxability will be different. In case the deferred payment facility is provided by the vendor and there is a delay in payment of EMI by the borrower, GST shall be charged on the additional interest due to such delay in payment. However, in case a loan facility has been provided by the vendor’s captive lending unit or by an independent bank or an NBFC, the additional interest charged on the delayed repayment will not be taxable under GST.

Conclusion

The circular by the government came up as a clarification in regard to GST implications on penal charges. This clarification brings ease to various NBFCs who were levying penal charges as per the agreement on the delayed payment of loan instalment. Also, the circular overrides the advance ruling in the case of Bajaj Finance Limited.

To summarise the above discussed concept:

  • Penal charges in case of delayed payment of instalment of supply of goods and services shall be included in the value of supply as per section 15(2) (d) of the CGST Act. The same shall be liable to tax under GST
  • Penal charges in case of delayed payment of instalment of a money to money transaction will be included in the value of supply as per section 15(2) (d) of the CGST Act. The same shall be exempt through serial no 27 of the notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June 2017. Therefore penal charges in this case shall not be taxable under GST.

[1] http://www.cbic.gov.in/resources//htdocs-cbec/gst/circular-cgst-102.pdf;jsessionid=4085899A448EFF7FCF1762E53BC68D3F

[2][2] http://gstcouncil.gov.in/sites/default/files/faq/27122018-UPDATED_FAQs-ON-BANKING-INSURANCE-STOCK-BROKERS.pdf

[3] http://www.cbic.gov.in/resources//htdocs-cbec/gst/Notification12-CGST.pdf;jsessionid=3D2C63EDD8A1183AEB262F41985CB224

[4] https://mahagst.gov.in/sites/default/files/ddq/GST%20ARA%20ORDER-22.%20BAJAJ%20FINANCE%20LTD.pdf

[5] [5] http://www.cbic.gov.in/resources//htdocs-cbec/gst/Notification12-CGST.pdf;jsessionid=3D2C63EDD8A1183AEB262F41985CB224

Project Rupee Raftaar: An Analysis

Slump sale, a supply of goods or service under GST?

By Yutika Lohia (finserv@vinodkothari.com)

Introduction

India is en-route to turn itself into a 21st century super-economy fuelled by the unprecedented growth of its business enterprises. Business may grow in two ways – either in an organic way or inorganic. The former refers to the internal forces of the enterprises which are re-organised to bring in development and growth into the business, whereas, in case of inorganic growth, the company goes into corporate restructuring to re-align its external facade to fuel the planned development and growth. In today’s fast moving corporate environment, corporate restructuring happens to be the most ideal tool to win an advantage in this pursuit.

Business restructuring is a comprehensive process, be it financial or technological or market or organisational. Business can be re-arranged by way of mergers, demergers, disinvestments, takeovers, strategic alliance or slump sale.

This article focusses on implications of GST on slump sale.

Concept of Slump Sale

The concept of slump sale comes from the Income Tax Act, 1961. The IT Act, in section 2(42C) defines “slump sale” as – “slump sale” means the transfer of one or more undertakings as a result of the sale for a lump sum consideration without values being assigned to the individual assets and liabilities in such sales.”  Further as per explanation 1 to section 2(19AA), “undertaking” shall include any part of an undertaking or a business activity taken as whole, but does not include individual assets or liabilities or any combination thereof not constituting a business activity.

Therefore, slump sale contains the following conditions:

  • Sale of one or more undertaking,
  • No individual value should be assigned to assets and liabilities, and the same to be sold for a lump sum consideration, and
  • All assets and liabilities of the undertaking must be transferred.

Transfer of all assets and liabilities

One of the major precondition of a slump sale transaction is that all assets and liabilities of the business undertaking must be transferred to the buyer.

As per Section 50B of IT Act, the cost of acquisition of such sale shall be the net worth (book value of assets and liabilities) of the undertaking.

Explanation 1 provides the method of computing the net worth of an undertaking or a division sold on slump sale basis. As per Explanation 1 “For the purposes of this section, “net worth” shall be the aggregate value of total assets of the undertaking or division as reduced by the value of liabilities of such undertaking or division as appearing in its books of account.”  This definition is no different from the meaning of the expression ‘net worth’, as is commonly understood in the accounting parlance.

There are various judicial pronouncements where there is difference of opinion that it is not essential to transfer all assets and liabilities for a transaction to qualify for a slump sale. That is to say, that even if some assets are retained by the transferor and the undertaking after such transfer carries out its business activities without any obstruction, it shall still qualify to be a slump sale. The same has been substantiated by Bombay High Court[1] in its ruling.

Since all assets and liabilities are to be transferred in a slump sale, it is important for one to understand the concept of going concern which is discussed at length below.

Going Concern Concept

The terminology “going concern” is not precisely mentioned in the definition of slump sale. Transfer as a going concern means transfer of a business or a unit which is capable of being carried on by a purchaser as an independent business. To constitute a slump sale, it is not necessary that the business is ongoing at the time of its transfer.

Going Concern is a fundamental accounting assumption and Accounting Standard 1, Disclosure of Accounting Policies defines it as follows:

“The enterprise is normally viewed as a going concern, that is, as continuing in operation for the foreseeable future. It is assumed that the enterprise has neither the intention nor the necessity of liquidation or of curtailing materially the scale of the operations.”

To constitute a slump sale all the assets and liabilities of the undertaking are to be transferred. Therefore it can be said that companies whose operations are shut and is into liquidation may also opt for slump sale provided the conditions mentioned above are met. The intention of such condition is to ensure that the business will continue in the new hands with regularity and a nature of permanency.\

Further it is not necessary that the entity should be a profit making company. The only valid point to be considered for a transfer to constitute as a “going concern” to mean if it constitutes a business activity capable of being run independently for a foreseeable future. Such views were taken In the Matter of M/S. Indo Rama Textiles Ltd[2]

The term “going concern” has no place in the GST Act. However one can refer to the pronouncement of the Advance Authority Ruling in case of Rajashri Foods Pvt Ltd for the same as mentioned below:\

A going concern is a concept of accounting and applies to the business of the company as a whole. Transfer of a going concern means transfer of a running business which is capable of being carried on by the purchaser as an independent business. Such transfer of business as a whole will comprise comprehensive transfer of immovable property, goods and transfer of unexecuted orders, employees, goodwill etc.

The transfer of business assets implies where the part of assets are transferred and not the whole business, i.e. the liabilities remain in the books of the transferor, whereas in transfer of business all assets and liabilities are transferred together. The concept of transfer of going concern comes handy when the business as a whole is transferred, however case laws and analysis do suggest the likelihood of transfer of assets as a going concern.

Slump sale: supply of good or supply of service under GST Act?

To understand the applicability of GST on a slump sale transaction, it is imperative to throw light on the word “supply” under the GST Act. It is explicitly discussed that for GST to be levied, there must be a case of “supply”. Therefore, we shall now refer the scope of supply as mentioned in Section 7 of the (Central Goods and Services Tax Act 2017 (CGST Act) which is as follows:

“(1) For the purposes of this Act, the expression “supply” includes––

  • all forms of supply of goods or services or both such as sale, transfer, barter, exchange, licence, rental, lease or disposal made or agreed to be made for a consideration by a person in the course or furtherance of business;”

XX

Supply includes activities such as sale, transfer, barter etc for a consideration in the course or furtherance of business. From this we can infer that the activities shall take place in the course or furtherance of business. Coming to slump sale, the transaction is neither during the course of business nor in persistence of business. However since the word “includes” has been used in the definition in Section 7 (1) of the CGST Act, the scope of supply goes beyond the course or furtherance of business. Therefore the transfer as a going concern shall also be treated as “supply” under GST.

As slump sale is considered to be a supply under GST, we should now understand if the same constitutes to be goods or services.

The term goods has been defined under section 2(52) of the CGST Act as:

“(52)“goods” means every kind of movable property other than money and securities but includes actionable claim, growing crops, grass and things attached to or forming part of the land which are agreed to be severed before supply or under a contract of supply;”

Further definition of “Service” as per section 2(102) of the CGST Act defines the term service as:

“(102)“services” means anything other than goods, money and securities but includes activities relating to the use of money or its conversion by cash or by any other mode, from one form, currency or denomination, to another form, currency or denomination for which a separate consideration is charged.”

Clause 4(c) of Schedule II of CGST Act states that

“(c) where any person ceases to be a taxable person, any goods forming part of the assets of any business carried on by him shall be deemed to be supplied by him in the course or furtherance of his business immediately before he ceases to be a taxable person, unless—

            (i) the business is transferred as a going concern to another person; or

             (ii) the business is carried on by a personal representative who is deemed to be a taxable person.”

Schedule II of the CGST Act talks about activities to be treated as a supply of good or supply of service wherein Clause 4, transfer of business assets has been considered as supply of goods. In Clause 4(c ) transfer of business as a going concern does not constitute as supply of goods.

As per the definition of services, anything other than goods is called a service. Business transferred as a going concern is excluded from the list of supply of goods. Since the schedule specifically excludes this activity, it becomes very obvious that transfer of business as a going concern is considered to be a supply of service.

Ministry of Finance vide its notification[3] no 12/2017- Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June 2017, came out with a list of supply of services and further brought clarity on “service by way of transfer of a going concern, as a whole or an independent part thereof” in serial no 2 of the said notification to constitute under supply of service. Further, activity of transfer of a going concern shall have “nil” rate of tax on such supply.

Since the notification talks about the activity of transfer of a going concern as a supply of service and the same is exempt from the purview of GST. Similarly Schedule II of the CSGT Act excludes transfer of business as a going concern as supply of goods, the same shall be considered as a supply of service and GST shall be levied.

It shall be inferred that transfer of a going concern as a whole or a part there or transfer of business as a going concern is tax-exempt under GST and transfer of business assets will have GST implications.

The above can be further justified by referring to the judgement passed by the Tax Authority of Advance Ruling in Karnataka in the case of Rajashri Foods Pvt Ltd[4] where it was decided that subject to the condition that the unit being transferred is a going concern, it will be considered as a supply of service and the same shall be exempt from the payment of GST to the extent leviable under sub section (1) of Section (9) of the CGST Act, 2017.

Itemisation of assets for levy of GST

In a slump sale, assets proposed to be transferred consist of both movable and immovable property i.e. land, building, stock, plant and machinery etc. Since these assets and liabilities are sold together for a lump sum consideration it does not tantamount to a “mixed supply” under GST.

Let us first understand the concept of mixed supply under GST

Section 2(74) of the CGST Act defines mixed supply as under:

“(74) “mixed supply” means two or more individual supplies of goods or services, or any combination thereof, made in conjunction with each other by a taxable person for a single price where such supply does not constitute a composite supply.”                     

To constitute a mixed supply, there has to be two or more supplies of goods or services and they have be in conjunction with each other. Therefore if the item in the bundle are neither goods nor services, it will not be considered a mixed supply under GST.

Let us understand the same with the help of an example. Suppose the assets being transferred to the buyer are plant & machinery, land and stock for a single price. Here there are more than one good transferred in the transaction. The bundle is not exclusively that of goods or services or both. The same will not qualify to be a mixed supply as land being transferred is excluded from the purview of GST (As per Schedule III of the GST Act which enumerates items which are neither supply of good nor supply of services).

Referring to the above example we may say that all legs of the definition should be satisfied for it to become a mixed supply. Merely because multiple items are sold for a single price should not, by the very fact render them as “mixed supply”. In so far as movable assets being concerned, it would be treated as supply of goods and is likely to attract GST.

Conclusion

Slump sale may be of an on-going business/unit or transfer of a stalled business/unit where the intent of the transferee is to run the entity. It can be said that that when there is a transfer of business and not of that of assets, in order to insulate from GST, it would require evaluation whether transfer is as a going concern or not.

The transaction of transfer of business as a whole of one of the units in the nature of going concern amounts to supply of service. The notification holds good, but subject to the condition that the unit is a going concern and therefore the same shall be free from the GST purview.

To summarise the above discussed concept

  • Transfer of business assets: Supply of goods
  • Transfer of business: Supply of Service
  • Transfer of business/ or a part thereof as a going concern : Supply of service and exempt via notification

Revival of companies will definitely be more cost effective than setting up a new structure altogether. Also this will give a push to the investors to take over such companies and create more job opportunities in India.


[1] https://indiankanoon.org/doc/1182478/

[2] https://indiankanoon.org/doc/135651533/

[3]http://www.cbic.gov.in/resources//htdocscbec/gst/Notification12CGST.pdf;jsessionid=D5B61ED295EAEE2B9E0361CAE1525D0F

[4] http://gst.kar.nic.in/Documents/General/06_RAJASHREE_LIMITED.pdf