Out-and-Out Ouster of Ineligible Persons- Liquidation Amendment Regulations, 2020 enact Discussion Paper proposals

-Megha Mittal

(resolution@vinodkothari.com

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (“IBBI”/ “Board”) vide Notification No. IBBI/2019-20/GN/REG053, dated 06.01.2020, introduced the IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (“Amendment Regulations”) w.e.f. the same day.

In what seems to be an adaptation of the ideas proposed in the Discussion Paper dated 03.11.2019[1], the Amendment Regulations seem to have provided for  “out-and-out ouster” approach towards persons ineligible under section 29A of the Code, in liquidation processes too, thereby imbibing in the Liquidation Process Regulations, the orders of the Hon’ble National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (“NCLAT”) in Jindal Steel and Power Limited v. Arun Kumar Jagatramka & Gujarat NRE Coke Limited (Company Appeal (AT) No. 221 of 2018)[2] and State Bank of India v. Anuj Bajpai (Liquidator) (Company Appeal (AT) (Insolvency) No. 509 of 2019)[3]

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RBI introduces another minimum details PPI

BACKGROUND

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has vide its notification[1] dated December 24, 2019, introduced a new kind of semi-closed Prepaid Instrument (PPI) which can only be loaded from a bank account and used for purchase of goods and services and not for funds transfer. This PPI has been introduced in furtherance of Statement on Developmental and Regulatory Policies[2] issued by the RBI. The following write-up intends to provide a brief understanding of the features of this instrument and carry out a comparative analysis of features of existing kinds of PPIs and the newly introduced PPI.

BASIC FEATURES

The features of the newly introduced PPIs has to be clearly communicated to the PPI holder by SMS / e-mail / post or by any other means at the time of issuance of the PPI / before the first loading of funds. Following shall be the features of the newly introduced PPI:

  • Issuer can be banks or non-banks.
  • The PPI shall be issued on obtaining minimum details, which shall include a mobile number verified with One Time Pin (OTP) and a self-declaration of name and unique identity / identification number of any ‘mandatory document’ or ‘officially valid document’ (OVD) listed in the KYC Direction.
  • The new PPI shall not require the issuer to carry out the Customer Due Diligence (CDD) process, as provided in the Master Direction – Know Your Customer (KYC) Direction (‘KYC Directions)[3].
  • The amount loaded in such PPIs during any month shall not exceed ₹ 10,000 and the total amount loaded during the financial year shall not exceed ₹ 1,20,000.
  • The amount outstanding at any point of time in such PPIs shall not exceed ₹ 10,000.
  • Issued as a card or in electronic form.
  • The PPIs shall be reloadable in nature. Reloading shall be from a bank account only.
  • Shall be used only for purchase of goods and services and not for funds transfer.
  • Holder shall have an option to close the PPI at any time and the outstanding balance on the date of closure shall be allowed to be transferred ‘back to source.’

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

The Master Direction on Issuance and Operation of Prepaid Payment Instruments[4] contain provisions for two other kinds of semi-closed PPIs having transaction limit of ₹10,000. The features of these PPIs seem largely similar. However, there are certain differences as shown in the following table:

 

Basis PPIs upto ₹ 10,000/- by accepting minimum details of the PPI holder

(Type 1)

PPIs upto ₹ 1,00,000/- after completing KYC of the PPI holder 

(Type 2)

PPIs upto ₹ 10,000/- with loading only from bank account

(Type 3)

Issuer Banks and non-banks Banks and non-banks Banks and non-banks
PPI holder identification procedure Based on minimum details (mobile number verified with One Time Pin (OTP) and self-declaration of name and unique identification number of any of the officially valid document (OVD) as per PML Rules 2005[5]) KYC procedure as provided in KYC Directions Based on minimum details (mobile number verified with One Time Pin (OTP) and a self-declaration of name and unique identity / identification number of any ‘mandatory document’[6] or OVD as per KYC Directions[7]
Reloading Allowed Allowed Allowed (only from a bank account)
Form Electronic Electronic Card or electronic
Limit on outstanding balance ₹ 10,000 ₹ 1,00,000 ₹ 10,000
Limit on reloading ₹ 10,000 per month and ₹ 1,00,000 in the entire financial year Within the overall PPI limit ₹ 10,000 per month and ₹ 1,20,000 during a financial year
Transaction limits ₹ 10,000 per month ₹ 1,00,000 per month in case of pre-registered beneficiaries and  ₹ 10,000 per month in all other cases ₹ 10,000 per month
Utilisation of amount Purchase of goods and services Purchase of goods and services and transfer to his bank account or ‘back to source’ Purchase of goods and services
Conversion Compulsorily be converted into Type 2 PPIs (KYC compliant) within 24 months from the date of issue No provisions for conversion Type 1 PPIs maybe converted to Type 3, if desired by the holder
Restriction on issuance to single person Cannot be issued to same person using the same mobile number and same minimum details more than once No such provision No such provision
Closure of PPI Holder to have option to close and transfer the outstanding balance to his bank account or ‘back to source’ Holder to have option to close and transfer the outstanding balance to his bank account or ‘back to source’ or to other PPIs of the holder Holder to have option to close and transfer the outstanding balance ‘back to source’ (i.e. the bank account of the holder only)
Pre-registered Beneficiary Facility not available Facility available Facility not available

THE UPPER HAND

Based on the aforesaid comparative analysis, it is clear that for issuance of the newly introduced PPI or the Type 3 PPI, the issuer is not required to undertake the CDD process as provided in the KYC Directions. Only authentication through mobile number and OTP supplemented with a self-declaration regarding of details provided in the OVD shall suffice. This implies that the issuer shall not be required to “Originally See and Verify” the KYC documents submitted by the customer. This would result into digitisation of the entire transaction process and cost efficiency for the issuer.

Compared to the other 2 kinds of PPIs, one which requires carrying out of the KYC process prescribed in the KYC Directions and the other, which can be issued without carrying out the prescribed KYC process but has to be converted into Type 2 PPI within 24 months, this new PPI can be a good shot aiming at ease of business and digital payments upto a certain transaction limit.

CONCLUSION

The newly issued PPI will ensure seamless flow of the transaction. As compared to other PPIs, it will be easier to obtain such PPIs. Further, the limitations such as reloading only from the bank account, restriction of transfer of money from PPI etc. are some factors that shall regulate the usage of such PPIs. These may, however, pull back their acceptance in the digital payments space.

 

 

[1] https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=11766&Mode=0

[2] https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=48803

[3] https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_ViewMasDirections.aspx?id=11566

[4] https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_ViewMasDirections.aspx?id=11142

[5] “officially valid document” means the passport, the driving licence, the Permanent Account Number (PAN) Card, the Voter’s Identity Card issued by the Election Commission of India or any other document as may be required by the banking company, or financial institution or intermediary

[6] Permanent Account Number (PAN)

[7] “Officially Valid Document” (OVD) means the passport, the driving licence, proof of possession of Aadhaar number, the Voter’s Identity Card issued by the Election Commission of India, job card issued by NREGA duly signed by an officer of the State Government and letter issued by the National Population Register containing details of name and address.

 

Our other write-ups relating to PPIs can be viewed here:

 

Our other resources can be referred to here:

 

 

 

MPC meeting – New type of PPI and more

finserv@vinodkothari.com

The Statement on Developmental and Regulatory Policies[1] dated 05 December, 2019 has been issued by the RBI pursuant to the fifth bi-monthly Monetary Policy Committee meeting.

Some quick updates and highlights of regulatory changes are given below –

1) Review of NBFC-P2P Directions- Aggregate Lender Limit and escrow accounts

Current limit for borrowers and lenders across all P2P platforms is ₹10 lakh, and exposure of a single lender to a single borrower is – ₹50,000 across all NBFC-P2P platforms.

It has been decided that in order to give the next push to the lending platforms, the aggregate exposure of a lender to all borrowers at any point of time, across all P2P platforms, shall be subject to a cap of ₹50 lakh.

Further, it is also proposed to do away with the current requirement of escrow accounts to be operated by bank promoted trustee for transfer of funds having to be necessarily opened with the concerned bank. This will help provide more flexibility in operations. Necessary instructions in this regard will be issued shortly.

 

2)  The ‘On tap’ Licensing Guidelines for Small Finance Banks have now been finalised and are being issued today.

 

3)New Pre-Paid Payment Instruments (PPI) 

It is proposed to introduce a new type of PPI which can be used only for purchase of goods and services up to a limit of ₹10,000. The loading / reloading of such PPI will be only from a bank account and used for making only digital payments such as bill payments, merchant payments, etc. Such PPIs can be issued on the basis of essential minimum details sourced from the customer. Instructions in this regard will be issued by December 31, 2019.

 

4) Development of Secondary Market for Corporate Loans – setting up of Self Regulatory Body

As recommended by the Task Force on the Development of Secondary Market for Corporate Loans, the Reserve Bank will facilitate the setting up of a self-regulatory body (SRB) as a first step towards the development of the secondary market for corporate loans. The SRB will be responsible, inter-alia, for standardising documents, covenants and practices related to secondary market transactions in corporate loans and promoting the growth of the secondary market in line with regulatory objectives.

Watch out for detailed articles on these topics to be published on our website soon.

[1] https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=48803