Car Leasing In India: ‘Breaking the Stereotypical Definition Of Luxury’

Julie Mehta (julie@vinodkothari.com)

Introduction

Who thought hiring was even an option to enjoy the luxury of having to use a car. But with the world undergoing a paradigm shift, it untapped its energies into providing and establishing better services for its customers, leasing has paved its way into existence. Most of the industries have adopted this concept and structured their services accordingly in order to provide the best they can to their customers, but that requires huge understanding of their needs. A commoner would always be awed by the immensely developing technology and the environment around them but limited resources makes them take a step back from the thought of availing such services. The market had its solution as hiring and renting came into picture. This has ensured dreams do come true.

Car has always been a luxury at least in most parts of India because of the fact that India still in its developing stage and there still remains a big gap between the rich and the poor and the middle income families fall nowhere. Indians have been developed with the mind state that not everyone can afford everything and thus one should limit their demands keeping in mind their pocket potential. The concept of hiring and renting is not only limited to houses and properties but with the advent of MNC’s and startup companies, they have widened the scope of bringing in the concept of hiring even furniture, vehicles, electronic equipment’s, etc.

Earlier, the concept of car leasing was only limited to corporate senior executives that was earlier known as ‘corporate leasing’ and was common for the luxury car brands. But slowly it has trickled down and become accessible to commoners and middle income families. Companies like Mahindra & Mahindra made some of its models available for leasing. Following this concept, several other car brands like Hyundai, TATA group and luxury brands like BMW, Mercedes etc. have also opened their doors to providing the lease facilities.

Car leasing and rental is one of the most lucrative and fast growing segment of the automobile sector in India even though it currently represents only 4-5% of the market in terms of absolute number of vehicles, but its future prospects are strong enough.

Factors like increasing popularity of app-cab providers like Ola, Uber, Zoom car cab booking facilities, rapid urbanization, relocation of rural population into cities, adds on to the potential of car leasing in India.

[1]The growth of the market in India is to ensure manifold growth in its CAGR by 15-20% in the coming ten years and further on making hiring of cars simpler eventually with current worth of Rs. 1500 crores. Most car making companies are making 40% of its business from leasing cars. This has largely helped change the mentality of customers and imbibed the fact that ‘why buy when you can lease it’.

 

Yellow number plates or white number plates?

People remain apprehensive about the color of the number plate they use in the car. While a yellow number plates denotes commercial use, white number represents personal use. People taking cars on lease will of course want white number plates on their cars.

The current legal framework for registration of motor vehicles allow cars taken on lease for personal use to bear white number plates.

In case of a car taken on lease, the lessee is the person having possession of the vehicle and hence, the ‘owner’ as per the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. Further, since it is the lessee who is actually using the car and the same has not been given on hire or used for any other commercial purpose, the car shall have a white number plate.

 

Global Status of Car Leasing

Globally, car leasing and hiring has been prevalent and growing for many years now. The analysts have forecasted that in the coming years, the global leasing market is to grow at a CAGR of 13-15%. This is gaining momentum due to the development of new mobility concepts by car leasing companies. For example, telematics was introduced in leased vehicles to monitor their usage on the job, another technological development was the installation of navigation in the leased vehicles making it more convenient for the lessor. People want change and with such facilities where there is an added benefit of not burning the pockets of customers, the lease scheme always works to hire cars on lease and cancel the contract anytime to shift on to better and advanced models of cars.[2]

The new trends dominating the global markets are the introduction of electric vehicle leasing and environment friendly cars that lead to sustainable development in the car manufacturing industries as well in the overall environmental situation. Such facilities encourage people to be more socially responsible and to do their bit towards the betterment of the society and also getting the leasing benefit out of it. Governments across the world are offering subsidies and tax benefits to encourage and boost the penetration of electric vehicles in their fleet. They have also introduced the concept of leasing old cars which helps reduce wastage as well as optimum usage. It is offered at a highly considerate premium and is attractive for low income customers. The global leasing market is fast moving with efficient strategies that ensures further growth too.

 

[3]Why has Leasing gained popularity in recent times?

GST introduction has come out to be a source of relief in time of distress for the Indian markets and consumers due to the stiff tax system of the country resulting in poor market functioning. With the introduction of ‘Goods and Services Tax’ on July 1, 2017, times have changed for the consumers, dealers as well as manufactures and has helped bring stability and balance in the economy by considering every person and their transaction at par, with the motive to bridge the gap between rich and poor in the long run. Evaluating their benefits below taking into consideration automobile industry:

  • To the consumers: The new tax regime has resulted in significant reduction in the tax rates imposed on the end consumers in comparison to the previous tax system.
  • To the dealers: The benefit of claiming the tax paid earlier benefits the dealers with the introduction of GST provides an added advantage to the dealers.
  • To the manufacturers: In recent times, car manufacturing companies have marked a fall in their sales which has led to dwindling profits. With the increasing exposure to car leasing, manufacturers have found their resort to stabilise their performance. This option induces customers to opt for leasing, thereby ensuring good business to the car manufacturers.
 CAR TYPE GST RATES COMPENSATION CESS TOTAL
Small Cars 28% 1% or 3% (depending on capacity) 29% or 31%
Mid-segment Cars 28% 15% 43%
Large Cars 28% 17% 45%
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV’s) 28% 22% 50%
Electric Cars 12% N.A. 12%

Numerical Comparison

To understand the calculation of Loan EMIs and Lease rentals, we structure an example with the concept of residual model to distinguish the calculations of both the alternatives.

Any loan transaction requires an initial down payment to the seller after which installments follow on monthly/quarterly/annually basis. The down payment creates an extra outflow on part of the buyer on loan along with additional installments. While no down payment is required in case of a lease that makes its overall outflow on the lower side in comparison to a loan.

Plus, in case of a lease transaction, the lessor takes an exposure on the residual value of the asset, this brings down the lease rentals per month.

In the example below, with the assumption of different rates of residual value, we understand that with the every increase in the percentage of residual value, the lease rentals of the operating lease borne by lessee comes down. This implies lower the term of the lease contract, lesser value of the asset is used, and thus lesser are thee lease rentals.

Details of the Vehicle  
Unit Cost 1000000.00
GST rate 28%
Compensation Cess 17%
Rate of GST 45%
GST 450000.00
Total 1450000.90
When Residual Value is considered to be 20%
Operating lease arrangement    
Basic price 1000000.00  
Add GST on purchase (ITC eligible) 450000.00  
Funding Amount 1450000.00  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.00
Expected Residual Value 20% 200000.00
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
Lease Rentals (RV not factored) ₹ 42,593.75  
Lease Rentals (before passing GST benefit) ₹ 39,718.75  
Input tax credit percentage 100%  
Less: GST benefit ₹ 9,375.00  
Lease Rentals (after passing GST benefit) ₹ 30,343.75  
Add: GST on rentals ₹ 13,654.69  
Total inflow ₹ 43,998.44  
 
Loan arrangement    
Loan amount 1450000.90  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.0342
Expected Residual Value 0% 0
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
EMI ₹ 42,593.78  

 

When Residual Value is considered to be 25%
Loan arrangement    
Loan amount 1450000.90  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.0342
Expected Residual Value 0% 0
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
EMI ₹ 42,593.78  

 

Operating lease arrangement    
Basic price 1000000.00  
Add GST on purchase (ITC eligible) 450000.00  
Funding Amount 1450000.00  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.00
Expected Residual Value 25% 250000.00
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
Lease Rentals (RV not factored) ₹ 42,593.75  
Lease Rentals (before passing GST benefit) ₹ 39,000.00  
Input tax credit percentage 100%  
Less: GST benefit ₹ 9,375.00  
Lease Rentals (after passing GST benefit) ₹ 29,625.00  
Add: GST on rentals ₹ 13,331.25  
Total inflow ₹ 42,956.25  
When the Residual Value is considered to be 30%
Loan arrangement    
Loan amount 1450000.90  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.0342
Expected Residual Value 0% 0
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
EMI ₹ 42,593.78  

 

Operating lease arrangement    
Basic price 1000000.00  
Add GST on purchase (ITC eligible) 450000.00  
Funding Amount 1450000.00  
Processing fees 3.80% 55100.00
Expected Residual Value 30% 300000.00
Tenure 48  
IRR 18%  
Lease Rentals (RV not factored) ₹ 42,593.75  
Lease Rentals (before passing GST benefit) ₹ 38,281.25  
Input tax credit percentage 100%  
Less: GST benefit ₹ 9,375.00  
Lease Rentals (after passing GST benefit) ₹ 28,906.25  
Add: GST on rentals ₹ 13,007.81  
Total inflow ₹ 41,914.06  

 

Conclusion

The major differentiating factors between a lease and a loan is that the former gives the right to use the asset without any upfront down payment, however, in case of the latter, there is an upfront down payment. Leasing works better when the lessor takes exposure on a handsome amount of residual value. Otherwise, it will turn out to be costlier than loan.

In the coming years, the car leasing market in India will be prospering as most car brands have now started to expand their services to even leasing now, which wasn’t prevalent until the last 4-5 years. With this competitive spirit, many more well developed brands would undertake this strategy to enhance customer base. The statistics of no: of cars being sold is going through a falling spree currently and is expected to fall further. But the leasing market will be flourishing on the other hand. It provides the ‘Best of Both Worlds’ to the customers as well as benefits the owner who still retain the ownership of the cars and gain benefit out of it.

 

[1] http://www.businessworld.in/article/-India-s-Car-Leasing-Market-Is-Worth-Rs-1-5K-Cr-Poised-For-15-20-CAGR-/27-05-2017-119041/

[2] www.statista.com

[3]http://www.cbic.gov.in/resources//htdocs-cbec/gst/notification05-compensation-cess-rate.pdf;jsessionid=B47A84DD8CE463AF356CD17117E2316B

[4]https://www.statista.com/outlook/270/119/car-rentals/india#market-arpu

 

 

Project Rupee Raftaar: An Analysis

-Kanakprabha Jethani | Executive

Vinod Kothari Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

kanak@vinodkothari.com, finserv@vinodkothari.com

BACKGROUND

The Working Group on Developing Avenues for Aircraft Financing and Leasing Activities in India, constituted by Ministry of Civil Aviation submitted its report[1] on measures for developing this industry in the country. The Working Group was formed to examine the regulatory framework relating to financing and leasing of aircrafts. The idea was derived from the Cape Town convention and it has also been proposed to enact a bill in order to fully implement the convention. This project is based on the theme “Flying for All”. The Indian civil aviation market has been exhibiting tremendous growth for past years. There is an overwhelming increase in demand for passenger transportation for which airlines in India have placed orders for more than 1000 aircrafts. Moreover, Indian airlines have been relying on other countries for financing acquisition of aircrafts on export credit, loan or lease basis. This hair-triggers the need for India to have in place its own systems for financing of such acquisitions.

One of the motivations of the project is to ensure that the dependence of Indian aviation industry on import leases is reduced. Currently more than 90% of the aircrafts operating in the country are on import lease basis, and there is a huge monthly outflow of foreign exchange by way of lease rentals, which is not reported as ECB, since it is an operating expense.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE TO AIRCRAFT FINANCING AND LEASING

The key players in global aircraft financing and leasing market are Ireland and the US. Countries like China, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan are emerging competitors in the market. The structures of aircraft financing, however, differ largely in all of these countries. The overall trends in the global arena can be evaluated on following bases:

Regional Outlook: through a research conducted for the Aviation Industry Leaders Report[2], it was concluded that North America is viewed as the most optimistic market player. Europe shows mixed signals due to market being strong and simultaneous slowing down of economy and other political issues. The Middle Eastern countries show a slow pace of growth and their models exhibit signs of stress. African airline market still has a lot of unrealised potential.

Financing Trends: sale and lease back transactions have become the most frequently used medium of aircraft finance over the world. Other forms of financing such as commercial bank debt, pre-delivering payment financing etc. have picked up pace. Also, traditional forms of financing such as export credit continue to be in operation but with reducing levels. Overall, the capital market remains very active and innovative in the aircraft finance sector.

Technology: new technology in aircrafts is being introduced frequently. However, implementation and commercialisation of the same continues to be a challenge. The Aviation Working Group’s Global Aircraft Trading System (GATS) proposed digitisation of transfer of lease deed ownership system which shall be expected to be activated by end of the year 2019.

CURRENT SCENARIO OF AIRCRAFT FINANCING IN INDIA

In terms of growth and advancement, India is far behind other Asian economies such as China, Singapore and Hong Kong. However, the Indian Aviation market has shown exponential rise in the past few years with an annual growth rate of 18.86% in 2017-18 and overall growth of 16.08% in passenger traffic. From 74 operational airports in 2013, it has reached a height of 101 operational airports in 2016. Expectations of having 190-200 operational airports by the end of 2040 are pointed out through various studies.

Currently, India has large aircraft order books, virtually all of which are leased through leasing companies located offshore. Under the regional connectivity scheme Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN), the government has decide to lease out operations, maintenance, and development of certain airports under Public private Partnership (PPP) model.

Overall, India has immense potential for growth in aviation sector but little means to aid the growth. It is in need of systems that aid the growth in a cost-effective and sustainable manner.

AIRCRAFT FINANCING STRUCTURE

Why is it needed?

In the view of increasing demand and non-availability of own sources of aircraft financing, it is essential for India to set up its own structures for the same. Moreover, civil aviation sector is an important sector for development of the economy. In the civil aviation industry, aircraft financing is the most profitable segment and there are no entities in the country exploring this line of business. All the benefits from this gap are being enjoyed by foreign entities.

What will be the structure?

For this structure, GIFT-CITY in Gujarat has been identified as preferred destination for initiation of operations in this industry as it offers a tax regime competitive to that of leasing companies all over the world.

Barriers in the structure

The aforementioned structure will face following barriers:

  • GAAR prevents Indian financers from taking advantage of other jurisdictions.
  • Aircraft financing is not a specifically permitted activity for banks.
  • Units operating in GIFT-CITY not permitted to undertake aircraft financing.
  • Framework for setting-up of NBFCs in GIFT-CITY and provisions as to treatment of income from operating lease is not provided.
  • Taxes and duties:
  • GST of 5% on import of aircraft
  • GST on lease rentals
  • Interest amount which forms part of lease rentals in case of financial lease is not eligible for any tax benefit.
  • No exemptions from withholding taxes
  • Stamp duty on instruments and documents executed.

The working group has proposed corresponding changes and amendments to be made to overcome these barriers. The response of relevant authorities is awaited.

Tax implications of the structure

Particulars

Tax rates

IFSC-GIFT CITY (proposed structure) INDIA (not following the structure)
INCOME TAX
Corporate Tax Rate: 34.94

o   Year 1 to 5

0.00

o   Year 6 to 10

17.47

o   Year 11 onwards

34.94
Minimum Alternate Tax 10.48 21.55
Capital gains on sale of aircraft 0.00 34.94
Withholding tax

o   Operating lease rentals

0.00 2.00

o   Interest payment (USD debt)

0.00 5.46

o   Interest payment (INR debt)

0.00 0.00

o   Other payments

0.00 10.00
Dividend Distribution Tax nil 20.56
GOODS AND SERVICES TAX
Purchase of aircraft 0.00 0.00
Operating lease rentals 0.00 5.00
Underfinance lease(interest portion) 0.00 5.00
Other services nil 18.00
Stamp duty on lease related documents 0.00 3.00

ANALYSIS OF TAX IMPLICATIONS UNDER VARIOUS MODELS OF FINANCING

Following table shows an analysis of indirect tax implications from the point of view of lessee and compares the proposed structure with the existing practice of financing as well as situation if financing is done outside the proposed structure but in India.

This table is based on following assumptions:

  • Value of aircraft- Rs.3500 crores
  • Residual value- Rs.500 crores
  • Rate of interest- 7.5%
  • Lease tenure- 25 years
  • Processing fee- 2%

On the aforesaid assumptions, lease rental per annum would amount to Rs.306.63 crores

Amount (in Rs. crores)

Tax expenditure Ireland IFSC-GIFT CITY Rest of India
GST on lease rentals 15.3315 0.00 15.3315
Stamp duty 0.00 0.00 105
GST on other services 0.00 nil 12.6
Overall indirect tax expenditure 15.3315 0.00 27.9315

OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS

Recommendations have been made by the Working Group to various regulatory authorities in order to overcome various barriers that are a hindrance to establishment of India’s own structure of aircraft financing and leasing. Following table shows some of the major recommendations:

Authority Recommendations
RBI Confirm that the term “equipment” includes aircrafts or notify aircraft financing and leasing as permitted activity for banks or subsidiaries of banks.
Amend IBU circular to include equipment leasing and investment in capital of leasing entities in scope of activities of banks
Confirm that equipment leasing entities shall be eligible to register as NBFC in IFSC
Issue specific directions in regard to investment in or by foreign entities engaged in aircraft financing and leasing activities.
Tax authorities Capital gains on sale of leased aircrafts should be fully exempted.
GST on leasing aircraft should be made zero-rated.
Nil withholding tax should be specified for airline companies.
Transfer/novation of aircraft financing / leasing contracts to units in an IFSC should not be under the purview of GAAR, for both the lessee and lessor
SEBI Amend SEBI (AIF) Regulations to create a separate category of AIFs for investment in aircraft financing/leasing activities or permit greater concentration of investment in aircraft financing/leasing entities.
Clarify whether 25% investment cap by AIFs applies on investment in equipment and grant additional relaxations to AIFs investing in aircraft financing activities.
Create separate category of mutual funds of investment in entities engaged in aircraft financing and leasing activities.
Clarify which institution can invest in entities registered in IFSC.
IRDAI Amend IRDAI regulations permitting companies set up in IFSC to invest in entities engaged in aircraft financing and leasing activities.
Clarify whether investment of funds of policyholders’ in entities registered in IFSC be considered as funds invested in India only.
Others Clarify under aircraft rules that aircrafts of lessors cannot be detained against any statutory or other outstanding dues.
Entities like pension funds, insurance companies, employee provident fund organisations be allowed to invest directly or indirectly in aircraft financing and leasing activities.
SARFAESI Act not be applicable to aircrafts.
Gujarat Stamp Act to exempt aircraft financing and leasing from its purview.
Permit airlines to set up branch in IFSC.

CONCLUSION

It is absolutely evident that aircraft industry is on upsurge and will continue to be rising globally in the coming years. To meet the rising demand and expand the country’s hold in the aviation market the proposed structure provides a well-established groundwork through the proposed structure. All recommendations, if accepted and implemented in a proper manner, will enable India to pioneer a very profitable and growth-oriented aviation market.

 

[1] https://www.globalaviationsummit.in/documents/PROJECTRUPEERAFTAAR.pdf

[2] https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/ie/pdf/2019/01/ie-aviation-industry-leaders-report-2019.pdf

 

Furniture rental startups: A financial perspective

Estimates peg the global furniture rental market at anything between $5-8 billion. Leasing/renting of home durables has seen steep growth. The idea of ownership has been superseded by the desire to gain better experiences by renting or sharing resources. Whatever the absolute numbers, the growth in mobility and intra-country migration suggests that there is a large and ever growing clientele of urban professionals with transferrable jobs and disposable income. Increasing numbers of furniture and appliance rental startups have sprung up to cater to this clientele. This article takes a quick look at the market and its potential in time to come. Read more

GST Council brings down the rate of GST on used cars, besides others

By Abhirup Ghosh, (abhirup@vinodkothari.com, finserv@vinodkothari.com)

The GST Council met for the 25th time on 18th January, 2018 to modify the GST law in order to tackle the difficulties being faced in the market. The Council recommended several changes to the law among and one of the change that has can cause a significant impact on the vehicle industry is reduction of rate of tax on sale or purchase of used motor vehicles. Read more

Major rejig in the GST law with respect to car leasing/ renting business

GST Division, (gst@vinodkothari.com)

 

Introduction

Vehicle leasing business in India has been gaining popularity ever since its inception in the year 2005. In the past few years, the industry has picked up pace and become the preferred mode of procuring a vehicle given its temporary and simplistic structure. The vehicle leasing market in India is estimated to be worth around Rs. 1500 crores, with a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of about 15-20%.[1] Although the market is scattered in nature, with around 30 companies in India carrying out the business of vehicle leasing, companies such as LeasePlan, Tranzlease, Orix India are some of the established players in this market. With a high percentage of working age population of around 925 million by 2020, and 70% of compact car owners belonging to an age group of below 35 years, the Indian vehicle leasing market has the potential to double its value in the coming 3 to 5 years.[2] While the core business of leasing companies in India involves leasing to corporations who provide the vehicles to their employees, the booming cab sector is also another area forms a chunk of their portfolio. Read more

Rates for goods and services notified: Impact on leasing business

By Abhirup Ghosh, (gst@vinodkothari.com)

On the headway to GST, which is going to be introduced from 1st July, 2017, the Government of India is doing substantial amount of law making each day. In the past few days the Government has not only finalised the rules but has also notified the final rates for goods and services. Read more