By Pammy Jaiswal (firstname.lastname@example.org) (email@example.com)
The untiring efforts of SEBI as well as the Government in uplifting the bond market is quite commendable. SEBI has started taking long footsteps towards the accomplishment of the budget announcement by the Government for the year 2018-19. The steps include introduction of electronic bidding platform for privately placed debt securities, consolidation of ISIN of debt instruments and introduction of a secondary market for debt instruments. Accordingly, our country’s bond market is almost at par with the banking loans to stand at Rs. 422 billion dollars as compared to Rs. 561 billion dollars as on 31st March, 2018. However, majority of bonds issued in the country are on private placement basis. Despite gaining prominence, bond issued in India currently lacks an active secondary market
SEBI in its continued effort for deepening the bond market, issued a “circular” dated November 26, 2018 where it has mandated certain listed entities to mandatorily borrow a certain percentage of its borrowings through the issuance of debt securities.
While it is true that SEBI does not want to leave any stone unturned for strengthening the Indian bond market, however, there certain grey areas in the framework, which needs further clarification. In this paper, we intend to highlight these grey areas and potential answers to the problems.
Further, we have also prepared a summarised write-up on the said framework which can be viewed here.
- When will the framework under the circular be applicable?
The framework under the circular is applicable w.e.f. FY 2019-20 (where the FY is from April to March) or FY 2020 (where FY is from January to December).
- What is the meaning of the term ‘Large Corporate’?
The entities which fulfil all the three conditions given below based on the financials of the previous year are termed as Large Corporate or LC:
- Listed companies (specified securities, debt securities, non- convertible redeemable preference shares);
- Having long term (maturity of more than 1 year) outstanding borrowings excluding ECBs and borrowings between parent and subsidiary of Rs. 100 cr and above; and
- Carries a credit rating of AA and above of unsupported bank borrowings or plain vanilla bonds (highest rating to be considered in case of multiple ratings).
- Whether the applicability of the said circular has to be examined every year?
LCs are required to check the applicability of the aforesaid circular every year and accordingly be termed as Large Corporates.
- What is the meaning of unsupported borrowings?
The circular talks about the credit rating of unsupported borrowings or plain vanilla bonds. Clause (iii) of para 2.2 states:
“have a credit rating of “AA and above”, where credit rating shall be of the unsupported bank borrowing or plain vanilla bonds of an entity, which have no structuring/ support built in; and in case, where an issuer has multiple ratings from multiple rating agencies, highest of such rating shall be considered for the purpose of applicability of this framework”
A supported borrowing may referred to as a borrowing backed by a collateral or some sort of a guarantee for ensuring its repayment. Therefore, an unsupported borrowing is nothing but an unsecured loan. The reason behind keeping the requirement of credit rating of AA and above for unsupported borrowing is to mandate entities having good credit ability for not only secured but also unsecured borrowings to issue specified percentage of their debt securities in accordance with this circular.
Further, only such highly rated entities shall encourage an investor to invest.
- What are the various stipulations with respect to bond issuances imposed by this circular?
There are basically two stipulations imposed under this circular:
For the first two years in which the framework becomes applicable (i.e. FY 2020 and 2021), the LC is required to raise a minimum of 25% of the long term borrowings (maturity of more than 1 year) in each of the FY (for which the entity becomes an LC) excluding ECBs and borrowings between parent and subsidiary (incremental borrowings) by way of issuance of debt securities
From the third year of the applicability (i.e. FY 2022 onwards), the LC is required to mandatorily required to raise a minimum of 25% of its increased borrowing in such year from the issuance of debt securities over a period of one block of two years.
Further, in case of any shortfall of borrowing in any year, such shortfall is required to be carried forward to the next year in the block.
- What is the manner of adjusting the shortfall in any FY?
As we go through the illustration given in Annexure C of the circular, it becomes clear that for the first year of implementation there is no concept of carrying forward the shortfall to the second year, since the LC is required to explain the reason for not being able to comply with the borrowing requirements.
Further, as regards the shortfall for the second year and onwards is required to be carried forward to the next year. Now let us try and understand the manner of adjustment from the below mentioned illustration:
X Ltd is an LC as on the last day of the previous year being 31st March, 2019.
[Rs. in cr]
[Not an LC]
|Increased Borrowing [IB]||200||500||700||600||650||100|
|Mandatory borrowing from debt securities of 25% of the IB[MB]||50||125||175||150||162.5||NIL|
|Actual Borrowing from debt securities [AB]||40||100||75||200||100||5|
|Adjustment of the shortfall of the previous year||NIL||NIL||NIL||100||50||112.5|
|Shortfall to carry forward||NIL||NIL||100||50||112.5||107.5|
Basically, the LC shall first adjust the AB towards the shortfall of the previous year of the current block and then check whether it has complied with the MB requirements. Further, the penalty shall be levied if there is the shortfall of the previous year in the current block could not adjusted with the AB of the second year of the current block.
- What are the penal consequence for non- compliance?
- For FY 19-20 & 20- 21, no penalty but explanation will be required;
- From FY 21-22 onwards, the minimum funding requirement has to be met over a block of 2 years.
- In case of any shortfall of the first year of the block is not met as on the last day of the next FY of the block, a monetary penalty of 0.2% of the shortfall amount shall be levied and paid to SE.
- The manner of payment of the penalty has not been provided in the circular but SEs are expected to bring the same.
- What are the disclosure requirements?
- The fact that the entity has fulfilled the criteria of being an LC based on the financials of previous year has to be disclosed to SE within 30 days of the beginning of the FY. Format as per Annexure A to the Circular.
- The details of incremental borrowings done in the FY has to be disclosed to SE within 45 days of the end of the FY. Formats as per Annexure B1 [(applicable for FY 19-20 & 20-21) and B2 (applicable for FY 21-22 onwards)] to the Circular.
- The aforesaid disclosures shall be certified both by the CS and CFO.
- The aforesaid disclosures shall also form part of the annual audited financial results.
- Any other specific requirements?
- The entity will need to choose any one of the Stock Exchanges (where the securities are listed) for payment of the penalty.
- The entity being an LC for the previous year and carrying a shortfall for that year in the current year for which the entity is not an LC shall also be required to make the requisite disclosures within 45 days of the end of the current year.
- Whether the requirements of the circular are relevant for all the LCs?
While the ambit of the circular is broad enough to cover both Non-Banking Financial Companies (‘NBFCs’) and Non-Banking Non-Financial Companies (‘NBNFCs’), the circular is more relevant for NBNFCs.
NBFCs are financial institutions and are engaged in lending and investing activities in their day to day operations and therefore, the major chunk of the working capital and long term funding requirements anyways come from issuance of debt securities considering the leverage issues.
Therefore, one may construe that the circular is more relevant for NBNFCs since they are not mandated to borrow from the issue of debt securities as the funding requirements of these entities can also be fulfilled by banks. Further, the circular should have laid down a specified threshold on the increased borrowing which if met should be required to constitute of debt securities also to the tune of 25%
- Whether relaxation is for any first two year of implementation or the year mentioned in the circular?
This circular was lead by a consultation paper issued by SEBI on July 20, 2018 which clearly stated that “A “comply or explain” approach would be applicable for the initial two years of implementation. Thus, in case of non-fulfilment of the requirement of market borrowing, reasons for the same shall be disclosed as part of the “continuous disclosure requirements”
However, the circular is clear on the initiation point of the said framework i.e. April, 2019, accordingly, one may take a view that the FY 2020 and 2021 shall mandatorily be the first two years in which the relaxation of comply or explain can be taken. Any entity which gets covered by the aforesaid circular at a later date shall have to mandatorily comply with the borrowing requirements and be liable to penalty in case of non-compliance.
- Whether the term ‘increased borrowings’ shall also cover Pass Through Certificates (‘PTCs’)?
As per the circular, “incremental borrowings” have been defined to include borrowings during a particular financial year with original maturity of more than 1 year, excluding ECBs and ICDs between a parent and its subsidiaries.
Further, IND AS 109, treats PTCs as collateralized borrowings only. Here it is pertinent to note that the question of showing the investor’s share in PTC as financial liability arises only because the securitised pool of assets fails the de-recognition test.
Originator has no obligation towards the investors of the PTC. The investors are exposed to the securitised pool of assets and not to the originator. Therefore, merely because the investor’s share appears on the balance sheet of the originator as financial liability, as per Ind AS 109, does not mean they are debt obligations of the originator.
Accordingly, incremental borrowings shall not include PTCs.
- In cases where an entity ceases to be an LC in one year and again gets covered by the circular in subsequent years, whether the initial disclosure to the stock exchange shall be required to be given again?
In our view, such entity should provide the exchange with the initial disclosure for the purpose and to enable the stock exchange to continuously monitor the compliance of the framework.
- How will the stock exchange be apprised that an entity is no more an LC
Ideally there should be an intimation to the exchange stating that the entity is no more an LC and accordingly the mandatory borrowing requirements should not be made applicable on for such FYs in which it is not an LC.
Further, this intimation may also indicate that the entity shall inform the exchange in terms of para 4.1 once it qualifies to be an LC.
- What is the role of the stock exchange in terms of para 5 of the circular?
- The exchange shall collate the information about the LC and submit the same to the Board within 14 days of the last day of the annual financial results;
- The exchange shall collect the fine as mentioned under para 3.2(ii); and
- The said fine shall be remitted by the exchange to the SEBI IPEF within 10 days of the end of the month in which the fine was collected
SEBI has laid down penal provisions for not complying with the circular. However, if the issue size of mandatory borrowing is too small, then there may be a possibility that LCs may think of doing their cost benefit analysis between the issue cost and the penalty amount. Therefore, SEBI should set a minimum threshold for increased borrowings and cover only those LCs to raise funds through bond market who exceed such threshold.
Can India replicate this model?
By Simran Jalan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
On March 23, 2017, Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) issued a consultation paper for Singapore Variable Capital Companies. On September 10, 2018, the MAS tabled the Variable Capital Companies Bill (the “Bill”) in Singapore Parliament.
The Variable Capital Company (“VCC”) is a corporate structure that is tailored for collective investment schemes (“CIS”). In Singapore, the most commonly used investment fund structures are unit trusts (constituted by way of trust deeds) and investment companies. The legislative framework for VCC seeks to provide an alternative to incorporating a company under the Singapore Companies Act (“CA”) for the formation of CIS in Singapore.
With the introduction of the VCC structure, the fund managers will have greater operational flexibility. This VCC structure will act as a platform for the fund managers to establish a domicile of their investment funds in Singapore.
This Bill will be administered by the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (“ACRA”) and will act as the registrar. However, the anti-money laundering and counter-financing of terrorism obligations of VCC will be overseen by the MAS. Read more
By Anita Baid,(email@example.com)(firstname.lastname@example.org)
Investments by Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) in unlisted debentures and securitised debt instruments (SDIs) issued by Indian companies was allowed pursuant to SEBI notification dated 27th February, 2017. Earlier in November, 2016, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had also permitted investment by FPIs in unlisted non-convertible debentures and securitised debt instruments issued by Indian companies. The said amendments by the securities market regulator and financial services regulator were the final push which was needed to encourage more FPI investments in India.
Previously, FPIs could invest only in debt securities of companies engaged in infrastructure sector. This was a clear indication that the government aimed to develop the infrastructure sector in India. But eventually, it seemed that the government did not want to restrict this to infrastructure only and wanted to reap all the benefits for developing a dynamic and facilitating bond market in the country.
Economic development and smooth flow of funds into the economy are the twin sides of the same coin and the government of India has very well taken this into account while amending the FPI regulation. Allowing FPI investments in unlisted debt instruments of Indian companies, was a step by the government to relax the burden which the companies had to bear, while raising funds in form of equity. The regulation in turn blocked the companies from taping into fresh funds and listing of debt instruments, which called for additional burden of complying with a host of other regulations.
By Mayank Agarwal (email@example.com )
Capital market is the one-stop solution for both companies and investors looking to utilize idle money in the most financially sound manner. While money markets provide short-term (generally less than one year) route of raising money, capital markets provide a much broader avenue. Although businesses rely upon money market sources to address liquidity issues, capital markets are explored with the intention of improving the solvency situation of the businesses.
A healthy and booming capital market is a clear-cut indication that the domestic people have confidence in the financial ecosystem of the country and that they trust the government and financial institutions with their money. Strong capital market volume aids economic growth by mobilization of savings and providing funds to those in need, thus increasing productivity.